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The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History
Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace

Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Sedition
Treason, disloyalty, rebellion (except Civil War)

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in chronological order

  Jacob Leisler (c.1640-1691) — of New York, New York County, N.Y. Born in Bockenheim, Holy Roman Empire (now part of Frankfurt am Main, Germany), about 1640. Fur trader; tobacco business; following the English Revolution of 1688, which brought Protestant rulers William and Mary to power, he led "Leisler's Rebellion" and seized control of the colony; Colonial Governor of New York, 1689-91; provided land for a settlement of French Huguenot refugees (now the city of New Rochelle); following the arrival of a new royal governor, he was ousted. Arrested, charged with treason, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death; executed by hanging and decapitation, in New York, New York County, N.Y., May 16, 1691 (age about 51 years). Four years later, he was posthumously exonerated by an act of Parliament. Original interment at a private or family graveyard, New York County, N.Y.; subsequent interment at Dutch Church Burial Ground, Manhattan, N.Y.; reinterment to unknown location; statue at Broadview Avenue, New Rochelle, N.Y.
  Relatives: Great-grandfather of Nicholas Bayard (1736-1802).
  Political family: Livingston-Schuyler family of New York (subset of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Robert Alexander (c.1740-1805) — of Maryland. Born in Elkton, Cecil County, Md., about 1740. Planter; lawyer; Delegate to Continental Congress from Maryland, 1775-76. Episcopalian. When the Declaration of Independence was promulgated, fled from Maryland to the British Fleet; in 1780, he was adjudged guilty of high treason, and his property was confiscated. Died in London, England, November 20, 1805 (age about 65 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article
  Andrew Allen (1740-1825) — of Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa. Born in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa., 1740. Lawyer; Delegate to Continental Congress from Pennsylvania, 1775-76. Disapproved of the Declaration of Independence, and withdrew from the Continental Congress in June 1776; when the British Army entered New York, he took the oath of allegiance to the King, and went to England; he was attainted of treason, and his estates in Pennsylvania were confiscated. Died in London, England, March 7, 1825 (age about 84 years). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of William Allen and Margaret (Hamilton) Allen; married, April 21, 1768, to Sally Coxe.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article
  David Mathews (d. 1800) — of New York, New York County, N.Y.; Nova Scotia. Lawyer; mayor of New York City, N.Y., 1776-83. In 1776, the New York Provincial Congress ordered his arrest over his involvement in a plot to poison Gen. George Washington; continued serving as mayor during British occupation of the city; in 1783, he fled to Nova Scotia with other Loyalists. Died near Sydney, Nova Scotia, 1800. Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  John Joachim Zubly (1724-1781) — of Savannah, Chatham County, Ga. Born in St. Gall, Switzerland, August 27, 1724. Ordained minister; Delegate to Continental Congress from Georgia, 1775-76; accused of treason against the Continental Congress and banished in 1777; half of his estate was confiscated; returned to Savannah in 1779. Presbyterian. Swiss ancestry. Died in Savannah, Chatham County, Ga., July 23, 1781 (age 56 years, 330 days). Interment at Colonial Park Cemetery, Savannah, Ga.
  Relatives: Married 1746 to Anna Tobler.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Joseph Galloway (1731-1803) — of Pennsylvania. Born in West River, Anne Arundel County, Md., 1731. Member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives, 1757-75; Delegate to Continental Congress from Pennsylvania, 1774-75. Opposed independence for the Colonies and remained loyal to King George; joined the British Army; moved to England; in 1778, the General Assembly of Pennsylvania convicted him of high treason and confiscated his estates. Died in Watford, Hertfordshire, England, August 29, 1803 (age about 72 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page
  Abraham Jones — of Richmond County, N.Y. Member of New York state assembly from Richmond County, 1777-78; removed 1778. Expelled from the New York Assembly (his seat was declared vacant) on June 8, 1778, for "being with the enemy.". Died on shipboard in the North Atlantic Ocean, en route back from Canada. Buried at sea in North Atlantic Ocean.
  Isaac Low (1735-1791) — of New York. Born in Raritan Landing (now part of Piscataway), Middlesex County, N.J., April 13, 1735. Delegate to Continental Congress from New York, 1774. Was opposed to armed conflict with Great Britain; accused of treason and imprisoned; his property was confiscated through a bill of attainder in 1779; moved to England in 1783. Died in Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, July 25, 1791 (age 56 years, 103 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Brother of Nicholas Low (1739-1826); married to Margaret Cuyler (brother of Abraham Cornelius Cuyler).
  Political family: Low-Cuyler family of New York.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page
  Matthew Lyon (1749-1822) — of Eddyville, Lyon County, Ky. Born in County Wicklow, Ireland, July 14, 1749. Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member of Vermont state house of representatives, 1779-83; U.S. Representative from Vermont 1st District, 1797-1801; member of Kentucky state house of representatives, 1802; U.S. Representative from Kentucky 1st District, 1803-11; defeated, 1810. Convicted and jailed in 1789 under the Sedition Act. Died in Spadra Bluff, Johnson County, Ark., August 1, 1822 (age 73 years, 18 days). Original interment at Spadra Bluff Cemetery, Spadra Bluff, Ark.; reinterment in 1833 at River View Cemetery, Eddyville, Ky.
  Relatives: Married to Mary Hosford (1744-1784) and Beulah Chittenden (1764-1824; daughter of Thomas Chittenden (1730-1797); sister of Martin Chittenden); father of Chittenden Lyon; great-grandfather of William Peters Hepburn.
  Political family: Chittenden-Lyon family.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books about Matthew Lyon: Aleine Austin, Matthew Lyon, 'New Man' of the Democratic Revolution, 1749-1822
  Joseph Roffignac (1766-1846) — also known as Louis Philippe Joseph de Rouffignac — of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Born in Angoulême, France, 1766. Fled France in 1789 to escape the guillotine, presumably over disloyalty to the revolutionary regime; mayor of New Orleans, La., 1820-28. French ancestry. Suffered a stroke, and dropped the gun he was holding, which accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head and killing him, in Périgueux, France, 1846 (age about 80 years). Burial location unknown.
  William Blount (1749-1800) — Born in Windsor, Bertie County, N.C., April 6, 1749. Member of North Carolina house of commons, 1781, 1783; Delegate to Continental Congress from North Carolina, 1782-83, 1786-87; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; member of North Carolina state senate, 1788; Governor of Southwest Territory, 1790-96; delegate to Tennessee state constitutional convention, 1796; U.S. Senator from Tennessee, 1796-97; member of Tennessee state senate, 1798-1800; died in office 1800; Speaker of the Tennessee State Senate, 1798-99. Presbyterian. Became involved in a conspiracy to turn Florida over to British control; when this plot was uncovered in 1797, was expelled from the U.S. Senate; afterwards, on July 7, 1797, he was impeached, but the Senate dropped the matter for lack of jurisdiction. Died in Knoxville, Knox County, Tenn., March 21, 1800 (age 50 years, 349 days). Interment at First Presbyterian Church Cemetery, Knoxville, Tenn.
  Relatives: Son of Jacob Blount and Barbara (Gray) Blount; half-brother of William Blount; brother of Thomas Blount (1759-1812); married, February 12, 1778, to Mary Grainger; father of William Grainger Blount.
  Political family: Blount family of North Carolina.
  Blount County, Tenn. is named for him.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Benjamin Sebastian — of Kentucky. Judge, Kentucky Court of Appeals, 1792-1806. Accused of being a paid agent of Spain; the charge was investigated by the Kentucky legislature, and he resigned in disgrace. Burial location unknown.
  Samuel Swartwout (1783-1856) — of New York, New York County, N.Y. Born in Poughkeepsie, Dutchess County, N.Y., November 17, 1783. He was participant in Aaron Burr's "Western Conspiracy"; delivered a message from Burr to Gen. James Wilkinson in New Orleans; subsequently arrested in November 1806 for misprision of treason, but released a few months later; early promoter of railroads; openly supported the Texas Republic in its war for independence from Mexico; served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; U.S. Collector of Customs, 1829-38; in 1838, it was alleged that he had embezzled more than $1.2 million from the New York customs house, and fled to England; later investigation implicated a subordinate of his as having obtained most of that money; forfeited his property and returned to the U.S. in 1841. Died in New York, New York County, N.Y., November 21, 1856 (age 73 years, 4 days). Interment at Trinity Churchyard, Manhattan, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of Abraham Swartwout and Maria (North) Swartwout; married 1814 to Alice Ann Cooper.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Jonathan Dayton (1760-1824) — of Elizabethtown, Essex County (now Elizabeth, Union County), N.J. Born in Elizabethtown, Essex County (now Elizabeth, Union County), N.J., October 16, 1760. Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member of New Jersey state house of assembly from Essex County, 1786-87, 1790, 1814-15; Delegate to Continental Congress from New Jersey, 1787-89; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention, 1787; U.S. Representative from New Jersey at-large, 1791-99; Speaker of the U.S. House, 1795-99; U.S. Senator from New Jersey, 1799-1805. Episcopalian. Member, Society of the Cincinnati; Freemasons. Arrested in 1807 on charges of conspiring with Aaron Burr in treasonable projects; gave bail and was released, but never brought to trial. Died in Elizabethtown, Essex County (now Elizabeth, Union County), N.J., October 9, 1824 (age 63 years, 359 days). Entombed at St. John's Churchyard, Elizabeth, N.J.
  Relatives: Son of Elias Dayton (1737-1807); distant relative *** of William Lewis Dayton.
  Political family: Dayton family of Elizabeth, New Jersey.
  The city of Dayton, Ohio, is named for him.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Aaron Burr (1756-1836) — also known as Aaron Edwards — of New York, New York County, N.Y. Born in Newark, Essex County, N.J., February 6, 1756. Democrat. Colonel in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; lawyer; member of New York state assembly, 1784-85, 1797-99, 1800-01 (New York County 1784-85, 1797-99, Orange County 1800-01); New York state attorney general, 1789-91; appointed 1789; U.S. Senator from New York, 1791-97; Vice President of the United States, 1801-05. Presbyterian. Killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, July 11, 1804. Tried for treason in 1807 and acquitted. Died, after several strokes, at the Winants or Port Richmond Hotel, Port Richmond, Staten Island, Richmond County, N.Y., September 14, 1836 (age 80 years, 221 days). Interment at Princeton Cemetery, Princeton, N.J.
  Relatives: Son of Aaron Burr (1716-1757) and Esther (Edwards) Burr (1732-1758); brother of Sarah Burr (1754-1797; who married Tapping Reeve); married, July 2, 1782, to Theodosia (Bartow) Prevost (1746-1794; first cousin twice removed of Francis Stebbins Bartow); married 1833 to Eliza (Bowen) Jumel (1775-1865); father of Theodosia Burr (1783-1813; who married Joseph Alston); nephew of Pierpont Edwards; third great-grandson of Thomas Willett; ancestor of Karla Ballard; first cousin of Theodore Dwight and Henry Waggaman Edwards; first cousin four times removed of Anson Foster Keeler (1887-1943); second cousin of John Davenport and James Davenport; second cousin once removed of Theodore Davenport; second cousin twice removed of Charles Robert Sherman; second cousin thrice removed of Charles Taylor Sherman, William Tecumseh Sherman, Lampson Parker Sherman, John Sherman and Evert Harris Kittell; second cousin four times removed of Chauncey Mitchell Depew, Ezekiel Gilbert Stoddard, Stillman Stephen Light and Blanche M. Woodward; second cousin five times removed of Alfred Walstein Bangs, John Clarence Keeler, Louis Ezekiel Stoddard, John Cecil Purcell and Arthur Callen Kittell, Jr.; third cousin of Benjamin Tallmadge; third cousin once removed of Frederick Augustus Tallmadge; third cousin twice removed of Eli Thacher Hoyt, George Smith Catlin, John Appleton, Howkin Bulkley Beardslee, Joseph Pomeroy Root and Edward Williams Hooker; third cousin thrice removed of Greene Carrier Bronson, Abijah Catlin, David Munson Osborne, George Landon Ingraham, Dwight Arthur Silliman and Charles Dunsmore Millard; fourth cousin of Noah Phelps and Hezekiah Case; fourth cousin once removed of Parmenio Adams, Elisha Phelps, Ambrose Tuttle, Jesse Hoyt, Abiel Case, Henry Fisk Janes, Jairus Case, George Washington Wolcott, William Dean Kellogg and Almon Case.
  Political families: Keeler-Floyd-Sherman-Bangs family of New York; Kellogg-Seymour-Chapin-Adams family of Connecticut and New York (subsets of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  Cross-reference: Jonathan Dayton — Nathaniel Pendleton — John Smith — John Tayler — Walter D. Corrigan, Sr. — Cowles Mead — Luther Martin — William P. Van Ness — Samuel Swartwout — William Wirt — Theophilus W. Smith
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books about Aaron Burr: Milton Lomask, Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756-1805 — Milton Lomask, Aaron Burr: The Conspiracy and Years of Exile, 1805-1836 — Joseph Wheelan, Jefferson's Vendetta : The Pursuit of Aaron Burr and the Judiciary — Buckner F. Melton Jr., Aaron Burr : Conspiracy to Treason — Thomas Fleming, Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America — Arnold A. Rogow, A Fatal Friendship: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr — H. W. Brands, The Heartbreak of Aaron Burr — David O. Stewart, American Emperor: Aaron Burr's Challenge to Jefferson's America — Donald Barr Chidsey, The great conspiracy: Aaron Burr and his strange doings in the West
  Fiction about Aaron Burr: Gore Vidal, Burr
  John Smith (c.1735-1824) — of Columbia (now part of Cincinnati), Hamilton County, Ohio. Born about 1735. Democrat. Member of Northwest Territory legislature, 1799-1803; delegate to Ohio state constitutional convention from Hamilton County, 1802; U.S. Senator from Ohio, 1803-08; resigned 1808. Indicted in Richmond, Virginia, 1807 on charges of participating in treasonous schemes with Aaron Burr; the charges were dropped after Burr was acquitted. Later that year, a Senate committee chaired by John Quincy Adams recommended that Smith be expelled from the Senate for his association with Burr. A trial was held in April 1808; Smith was represented by Francis Scott Key and Robert Goodloe Harper. The expulsion resolution failed on a vote of 19 to 10, one vote short of the two-thirds required. Died in St. Francisville, West Feliciana Parish, La., July 30, 1824 (age about 89 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page
  Lorenzo de Zavala (1788-1836) — also known as Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz — of Mérida, Yucatan; La Porte, Harris County, Tex. Born in Tecoh, Yucatan, October 3, 1788. Active in politics in Mexico, 1812-34; imprisoned in 1814-17 by Mexican authorities over his advocacy of democratic reforms; delegate to Texas Consultation of 1835 from District of Harrisburg, 1835; delegate to Texas Republic Republic constitutional convention from District of Harrisburg, 1836; signer, Texas Declaration of Independence, 1836; Vice President of the Texas Republic, 1836. Died, of pneumonia, November 15, 1836 (age 48 years, 43 days). Interment at de Zavala Family Cemetery, La Porte, Tex.
  Relatives: Son of Anastasio de Zavala y Velázquez and Maria Bárbara Sáenz y Castro; married 1807 to Teresa Correa y Correa (died 1831); married, November 12, 1831, to Emily West.
  Zavala County, Tex. is named for him.
  Albert Lange (1801-1869) — of Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind. Born in Charlottenburg, Prussia (now part of Berlin, Germany), December 16, 1801. Republican. He belonged to a secret society which advocated a constitutional government for the German Empire; in 1824, the conspiracy was uncovered; he was convicted of treason and sentenced to fifteen years in in prison; pardoned in 1829, and left Germany for the United States; U.S. Consul in Amsterdam, 1849-50; Indiana state auditor, 1861-63; mayor of Terre Haute, Ind., 1863-67. Died in Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind., July 25, 1869 (age 67 years, 221 days). Interment at Woodlawn Cemetery, Terre Haute, Ind.
  Lange Elementary School (now closed), in Terre Haute, Indiana, was named for him.
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Stephen Fuller Austin (1793-1836) — also known as Stephen F. Austin; "Father of Texas" — Born in Wythe County, Va., November 3, 1793. Member of Missouri territorial legislature, 1814-19; delegate to Texas Convention of 1832 from District of San Felipe de Austin, 1832; took petition to Mexico City for the establishment of Texas as a separate Mexican state, 1832; charged with attempting revolution, and imprisoned until 1835; delegate to Texas Convention of 1833 from District of Austin, 1833; delegate to Texas Consultation of 1835 from District of San Felipe de Austin, 1835; candidate for President of the Texas Republic, 1836; Texas Republic Secretary of State, 1836; died in office 1836. Member, Freemasons. Died of pneumonia, in Brazoria County, Tex., December 27, 1836 (age 43 years, 54 days). Original interment at Peach Point Cemetery, Gulf Prairie, Tex.; reinterment in 1910 at Texas State Cemetery, Austin, Tex.
  Relatives: Son of Moses Austin (1761-1821) and Maria (Brown) Austin (1768-1824).
  Austin County, Tex. is named for him.
  The city of Austin, Texas, is named for him.  — Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, Texas, is named for him.  — Austin College, Sherman, Texas, is named for him.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Handbook of Texas Online
  Books about Stephen F. Austin: Gregg Cantrell, Stephen F. Austin : Empresario of Texas
  Henry P. Scholte (1805-1868) — of Pella, Marion County, Iowa. Born in Amsterdam, Netherlands, September 25, 1805. Republican. Preacher; joined the dissenters from the national church of the Netherlands; tried in 1834 for teaching heresy, expelled from the church, fined, and imprisoned; helped organize a group which emigrated to Iowa in 1847; lawyer; postmaster; delegate to Republican National Convention from Iowa, 1860. Dutch ancestry. Died August 25, 1868 (age 62 years, 335 days). Interment at Oakwood Cemetery, Pella, Iowa.
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Lorenzo Brentano (1813-1891) — also known as Lorenz Peter Carl Brentano — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill. Born in Mannheim, Germany, November 4, 1813. Republican. In Germany, he participated in the 1849 revolution; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment; escaped to the United States; member of Illinois state house of representatives 61st District, 1863-65; delegate to Republican National Convention from Illinois, 1864; Presidential Elector for Illinois, 1868; U.S. Consul in Dresden, 1872-76; U.S. Representative from Illinois 3rd District, 1877-79. German ancestry. Died in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., September 18, 1891 (age 77 years, 318 days). Interment at Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Ill.
  Relatives: Married to Caroline Brentano (1819-1893); father of Theodore Brentano (1854-1940).
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Joseph Barker (c.1806-1862) — of Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pa. Born in Allegheny County, Pa., about 1806. Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pa., 1850-51; defeated, 1851, 1852. In 1849, after an anti-Catholic speech, he was arrested, charged with using obscene language, obstructing the streets, and causing a riot, convicted, and sentenced to a year in prison; elected mayor in 1850 while still incarcerated. While mayor, he was twice arrested on charges of assault and battery. In 1851, he was convicted of riot. Struck and killed by a railroad train, in Ross Township, Allegheny County, Pa., August 2, 1862 (age about 56 years). Interment at Allegheny Cemetery, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Patrick F. Egan Patrick F. Egan (1841-1919) — of Lincoln, Lancaster County, Neb. Born in County Longford, Ireland, August 13, 1841. Republican. Irish home rule advocate; prosecuted in Dublin, 1880, for sedition; grain elevator business; delegate to Republican National Convention from Nebraska, 1888; U.S. Minister to Chile, 1889-93. Died in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., September 30, 1919 (age 78 years, 48 days). Interment at St. Raymond's Cemetery, Bronx, N.Y.
  See also U.S. State Dept career summary
  Image source: Life and Work of James G. Blaine (1893)
  Robert William Wilcox (1855-1903) — also known as Robert W. Wilcox — of Honolulu, Island of Oahu, Honolulu County, Hawaii. Born in Kahalu, Honuaula, Island of Maui, Maui County, Hawaii, February 15, 1855. Delegate to U.S. Congress from Hawaii Territory, 1900-03. Leader of the Hawaiian revolution of 1889; tried for treason, but acquitted by a jury. Was involved in the rebellion of 1895 and subsequently court-martialed, found guilty, and sentenced to death; the sentence was later commuted to 35 years; pardoned by the Hawaiian president in 1898. Died in Honolulu, Island of Oahu, Honolulu County, Hawaii, October 23, 1903 (age 48 years, 250 days). Interment at Catholic Cemetery, Honolulu, Island of Oahu, Hawaii.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page
  James Mark Sullivan (1873-1933) — also known as James M. Sullivan — of New York. Born in Ireland, 1873. U.S. Minister to Dominican Republic, 1913-15. Participated in the 1916 Easter Uprising in Ireland; arrested by the British authorities, but not executed due to his American diplomatic passport. Died in 1933 (age about 60 years). Interment at Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, Ireland.
  See also U.S. State Dept career summary
  Earl Russel Browder (1891-1973) — also known as Earl Browder — of Yonkers, Westchester County, N.Y. Born in Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kan., May 20, 1891. Communist. As a result of his opposition to U.S. participation in World War I, he was convicted in 1917 of conspiracy against the draft laws and sentenced to sixteen months in prison; imprisoned again in 1919; pardoned in 1933; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1930 (6th District), 1932 (20th District), 1940 (14th District); General Secretary of the Communist Party of the U.S., 1934-44; candidate for President of the United States, 1936, 1940; arrested in 1939 for a passport violation, convicted, and sentenced to four years in prison (sentence commuted after fourteen months); expelled from the Communist Party, 1946. Died in Princeton, Mercer County, N.J., June 27, 1973 (age 82 years, 38 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of William Browder and Martha (Hankins) Browder; married 1926 to Raissa Berkman.
  Cross-reference: George E. Powers
  See also Wikipedia article
Victor L. Berger Victor Luitpold Berger (1860-1929) — also known as Victor L. Berger — of Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wis. Born in Nieder-Rehbach, Austria, February 28, 1860. Socialist. Emigrated to the United States in 1878; school teacher; newspaper editor; U.S. Representative from Wisconsin 5th District, 1911-13, 1919, 1923-29; defeated, 1904, 1920; candidate for U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, 1918; delegate to Socialist National Convention from Wisconsin, 1920; Chairman of Socialist Party, 1927-29. Jewish ancestry. Member, International Typographical Union. He and Eugene V. Debs founded the Socialist Party. He opposed U.S. entry into World War I; in Chicago in 1918, he was tried and convicted under the Espionage Act, and sentenced to twenty years in prison; elected to Congress anyway, he was denied a seat in 1919-21 to to alleged disloyalty. In 1921, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed his conviction; the cases against him were withdrawn; he resumed his seat in Congress in 1923. Injured in a streetcar accident, and subsequently died, in Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wis., August 7, 1929 (age 69 years, 160 days). Interment at Forest Home Cemetery, Milwaukee, Wis.
  Relatives: Son of Ignatz Berger and Julia Berger; married, December 4, 1897, to Meta Schlicting.
  Cross-reference: William F. Kruse — Adolph Germer — J. Louis Engdahl — Irwin St. John Tucker
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Image source: Marxists Internet Archive
  J. Louis Engdahl (1884-1932) — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill.; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minn., November 11, 1884. Writer and editor for Socialist and Communist newspapers; indicted in Chicago, 1918, along with former U.S. Rep. Victor L. Berger, and three others, for making speeches that encouraged disloyalty and obstructed military recruitment; tried and convicted; sentenced to twenty years in prison; the conviction was later overturned; Socialist candidate for U.S. Representative from Illinois 7th District, 1918; delegate to Socialist National Convention from Illinois, 1920; candidate for U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1924 (Workers), 1926 (Workers Communist); Communist candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1930; Communist candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 7th District, 1931. Swedish ancestry. Died, of pneumonia, in Moscow, Russia, November 21, 1932 (age 48 years, 10 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
Eugene V. Debs Eugene Victor Debs (1855-1926) — also known as Eugene V. Debs — of Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind. Born in Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind., November 5, 1855. Socialist. Locomotive fireman on the Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad; secretary-treasurer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen in 1880-93; member of Indiana state house of representatives, 1885; founder in 1893 and president (1893-97) of the American Railway Union; arrested during a strike in 1894 and charged with conspiracy to commit murder; the charges were dropped, but he was jailed for six months for contempt of court; became a Socialist while incarcerated; candidate for President of the United States, 1900 (Social Democratic), 1904 (Socialist), 1908 (Socialist), 1912 (Socialist), 1920 (Socialist); in 1905, was a founder of the Industrial Workers of the World ("Wobblies"), which hoped to organize all workers in "One Big Union"; convicted under the Sedition and Espionage Act for an anti-war speech he made in 1918, and sentenced to ten years in federal prison; released in 1921. Member, Knights of Pythias; American Civil Liberties Union. Died in Lindlahr Sanitarium, Elmhurst, DuPage County, Ill., October 20, 1926 (age 70 years, 349 days). Interment at Highland Lawn Cemetery, Terre Haute, Ind.
  Relatives: Son of Daniel Debs and Marguerite (Betterich) Debs; married, June 9, 1885, to Katherine 'Kate' Metzel (step-sister-in-law of Bertha D. Baur (1870-1967)).
  Cross-reference: Victor L. Berger — William A. Cunnea
  See also NNDB dossier
  Books about Eugene V. Debs: James Chace, 1912 : Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft and Debs : The Election that Changed the Country — Charles W. Carey, Jr., Eugene V. Debs : Outspoken Labor Leader and Socialist (for young readers)
  Image source: American Monthly Review of Reviews, September 1908
  Rose Pastor Stokes — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Communist. Indicted in 1918 for sedition over a speech she made in Kansas City, and released on bail; arrested in Stamford, Conn., in September, 1921, to prevent her from giving a speech there; candidate for borough president of Manhattan, New York, 1921. Female. Burial location unknown.
  William F. Kruse (1894-1952) — also known as Bill Kruse — of Illinois. Born in Hoboken, Hudson County, N.J., 1894. Bookkeeper; indicted in Chicago, 1918, along with former U.S. Rep. Victor L. Berger, and three others, for making speeches that encouraged disloyalty and obstructed military recruitment; tried and convicted; sentenced to twenty years in prison; the conviction was later overturned; Socialist candidate for U.S. Representative from Illinois 6th District, 1918, 1920; delegate to Socialist National Convention from Illinois, 1920; Socialist candidate for secretary of state of Illinois, 1921; Workers candidate for Governor of Illinois, 1928. German and Danish ancestry. Died in 1952 (age about 58 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Irwin St. John Tucker — of Illinois. Socialist. Lecturer; indicted in Chicago, 1918, along with former U.S. Rep. Victor L. Berger, and three others, for making speeches that encouraged disloyalty and obstructed military recruitment; tried and convicted; sentenced to twenty years in prison; the conviction was later overturned; candidate for U.S. Representative from Illinois 10th District, 1918; delegate to Socialist National Convention from Illinois, 1920. Burial location unknown.
  Adolph Germer (1881-1966) — of Belleville, St. Clair County, Ill.; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Wehlau, East Prussia (now Znamensk, Kaliningrad Oblast), January 15, 1881. Socialist. Miner; union official in various capacities for the United Mine Workers of America, 1906-16; member of Socialist National Committee from Illinois, 1911; candidate for Illinois state house of representatives, 1912; candidate for U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1914; National Executive Secretary, Socialist Party of America, 1916-19; indicted in Chicago, 1918, along with former U.S. Rep. Victor L. Berger, and three others, for making speeches that encouraged disloyalty and obstructed military recruitment; tried and convicted; sentenced to twenty years in prison; the conviction was later overturned; candidate for New York state assembly from New York County 16th District, 1921. Member, United Mine Workers. Died in Rockford, Winnebago County, Ill., May, 1966 (age 85 years, 0 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Emil M. Herman (1879-1928) — of Seattle, King County, Wash.; Everett, Snohomish County, Wash. Born in Kamnitz, Bohemia (now Kamienice, Czechia), August 22, 1879. Socialist. Socialist candidate for Seattle city council, 1904; candidate for U.S. Representative from Washington, 1906 (at-large), 1908 (2nd District), 1909 (2nd District); State Secretary, Socialist Party of Washington, 1916-18; arrested in 1918, and convicted under the Espionage Act; sentenced to ten years in prison; served three years and four months; candidate for Governor of Washington, 1924. German ancestry. Member, Industrial Workers of the World. Died October 10, 1928 (age 49 years, 49 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married to Ruby Herman (1885?-?).
  See also Wikipedia article
Elmer T. Allison Elmer T. Allison (1883-1982) — of Seattle, King County, Wash.; Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Bethel, Fairfield County, Conn.; Washington. Born in Houstonia, Pettis County, Mo., December 5, 1883. Communist. Sawmill worker; arrested in Cleveland, 1919, on charges of violating the state's criminal syndicalism law; Workers candidate for New York state senate 14th District, 1926; poet. Member, Industrial Workers of the World. Died in Olympia, Thurston County, Wash., July 18, 1982 (age 98 years, 225 days). Interment at Woodbine Cemetery, Puyallup, Wash.
  Relatives: Son of Nathaniel Allison and Mattie (Johnson) Allison; brother of Hortense Allison (who married Alfred Wagenknecht); married 1908 to Anna Theresa Swanson; married 1922 to Rose Rosen; uncle of Helen Allison Winter (1908-2001) (who married Carl Winter).
  Political family: Winter-Wagenknecht family.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Image source: Marxists Internet Archive
  Charlotte Anita Whitney (c.1868-1955) — also known as Anita Whitney — of California. Born about 1868. Communist. Social worker; in 1919, she gave a radical speech in Oakland, California; as a result, she was arrested, tried, and found guilty of violating the state's syndicalism law; pardoned by Governor C. C. Young.; candidate for U.S. Senator from California, 1928, 1940 (Communist). Female. Died in San Francisco, Calif., February 4, 1955 (age about 87 years). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Daughter of George E. Whitney (1838?-?); niece of Stephen Johnson Field.
  Political family: Whitney-Field-Brewer-Wells family of California.
  G. August Gerber — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Socialist. Arrested for making seditious utterances on March 26, 1920, in Philadelphia, when police broke up a protest meeting, and charged with inciting to riot; released when the charges were dropped the next day; candidate for New York state assembly from New York County 18th District, 1921, 1922; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1930 (19th District), 1932 (at-large). Burial location unknown.
  Charles Solomon (1889-1963) — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born October 29, 1889. Socialist. Newspaperman; member of New York state assembly from Kings County 23rd District, 1919-20, 1921; expelled 1920, 1920; defeated, 1927; delegate to Socialist National Convention from New York, 1920; candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1924; candidate for Justice of New York Supreme Court 2nd District, 1928, 1938; candidate for New York state senate 8th District, 1930; candidate for U.S. Senator from New York, 1932; candidate for mayor of New York City, N.Y., 1933; candidate for Governor of New York, 1934; American Labor candidate for delegate to New York state constitutional convention at-large, 1937. Jewish. Expelled from the New York State Assembly over alleged disloyalty, along with the other four Socialist members, April 1, 1920; re-elected to the same seat in a special election, and expelled again on September 21. Died December 8, 1963 (age 74 years, 40 days). Interment at Mt. Lebanon Cemetery, Glendale, Queens, N.Y.
  Epitaph: "He Gave The People of His Best."
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Samuel Orr (1890-1981) — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y. Born July 11, 1890. Socialist. Lawyer; member of New York state assembly from Bronx County 4th District, 1918, 1920, 1921; defeated, 1918; expelled 1920; resigned 1920; delegate to Socialist National Convention from New York, 1920; candidate for New York state senate, 1922 (22nd District), 1928 (22nd District), 1933 (21st District); candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 23rd District, 1926, 1930, 1932, 1934; New York City Magistrate, 1941-51. Jewish. Expelled from the New York State Assembly over alleged disloyalty, along with the other four Socialist members, April 1, 1920; re-elected to the same seat in a special election, but resigned in protest when three other Socialist members were expelled again. Died, in Montefiore Hospital, Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y., August 29, 1981 (age 91 years, 49 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Louis Waldman (1892-1982) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born in Yancherudnia, Russia (now Ukraine), January 5, 1892. Socialist. Civil engineer; lawyer; member of New York state assembly from New York County 8th District, 1918, 1920; expelled 1920, 1920; defeated, 1920; candidate for New York state senate 14th District, 1922; candidate for New York state attorney general, 1924; candidate for Justice of New York Supreme Court 2nd District, 1927 (Socialist), 1937 (American Labor); candidate for Governor of New York, 1928, 1930, 1932; delegate to New York convention to ratify 21st amendment, 1933. Jewish and Ukrainian ancestry. Expelled from the New York State Assembly over alleged disloyalty, along with the other four Socialist members, April 1, 1920; re-elected to the same seat in a special election, and expelled again on September 21. Suffered a severe stroke, and died four years later, in the Jewish Home and Hospital for the Aged, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., September 12, 1982 (age 90 years, 250 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  August Claessens (1885-1954) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y.; Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born in Switzerland, 1885. School teacher; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1914 (Socialist, 15th District), 1924 (Socialist, 23rd District), 1928 (Socialist, 14th District), 1930 (Socialist, 18th District), 1932 (Socialist, 14th District), 1934 (Socialist, at-large), 1946 (Liberal, 10th District), 1948 (Liberal, 8th District), 1950 (Liberal, 8th District); member of New York state assembly from New York County 17th District, 1918-20, 1922; defeated, 1915 (Socialist, New York County 26th District); expelled 1920, 1920; defeated, 1920 (Socialist, New York County 17th District), 1922 (Socialist, New York County 17th District), 1923 (Socialist, New York County 17th District), 1925 (Socialist, Bronx County 4th District), 1937 (American Labor, Kings County 4th District), 1938 (American Labor, Kings County 14th District), 1954 (Liberal, Kings County 14th District); delegate to Socialist National Convention from New York, 1920; Socialist candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1926; American Labor candidate for New York state senate 11th District, 1940. Expelled from the New York State Assembly over alleged disloyalty, along with the other four Socialist members, April 1, 1920; re-elected to the same seat in a special election, and expelled again on September 21. Died, following a heart attack, at Brooklyn Jewish Hospital, Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., December 9, 1954 (age about 69 years). Interment at Cedar Grove Cemetery, Flushing, Queens, N.Y.
  Relatives: Married 1912 to Hilda Goldstein (1890?-1932); married to Anna Glassman.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Benjamin Gitlow (c.1891-1965) — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y. Born about 1891. Communist. Member of New York state assembly from Bronx County 3rd District, 1918; defeated (Socialist), 1918; convicted on criminal anarchy charges, 1920; sentenced to five to ten years in prison; lost an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1925; candidate for mayor of New York City, N.Y., 1921 (Communist), 1925 (Workers); candidate for Vice President of the United States, 1924, 1928; Workers candidate for Governor of New York, 1926. Died in 1965 (age about 74 years). Burial location unknown.
  Books by Benjamin Gitlow: I Confess: The Truth About American Communism — The Whole of Their Lives: Communism in America / A Personal History and Intimate Portrayal of Its Leaders
Samuel A. De_Witt Samuel Aaron De Witt (1891-1963) — also known as Samuel A. De Witt; Sam De Witt — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y.; Queens, Queens County, N.Y. Born in 1891. Socialist. Machinery dealer; poet; playwright; member of New York state assembly from Bronx County 3rd District, 1920; expelled 1920; resigned 1920; defeated, 1920 (Bronx County 3rd District), 1924 (Bronx County 7th District), 1926 (Bronx County 7th District), 1927 (Bronx County 3rd District), 1929 (Bronx County 3rd District), 1932 (Queens County 4th District), 1933 (Queens County 4th District); candidate for borough president of Bronx, New York, 1925; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1928 (22nd District), 1934 (2nd District), 1935 (2nd District), 1936 (2nd District). Expelled from the New York State Assembly over alleged disloyalty, along with the other four Socialist members, April 1, 1920; re-elected to the same seat in a special election, but resigned in protest when three other Socialist members were expelled again. Died in Yonkers, Westchester County, N.Y., January 22, 1963 (age about 71 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Image source: Library of Congress
  William Bross Lloyd (1875-1946) — also known as William B. Lloyd; "The Millionaire Socialist" — of Winnetka, Cook County, Ill. Born in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., February 27, 1875. Socialist. Candidate for U.S. Senator from Illinois, 1918; arrested in downtown Chicago, 1918, for refusing to remove a red flag from his limo; co-founder of Communist Labor Party, 1919; indicted for sedition, 1920; represented at trial by Clarence Darrow; convicted, sentenced to 1-5 years in prison; his sentence was commuted in 1922. Died, of cancer, in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Boston, Suffolk County, Mass., June 30, 1946 (age 71 years, 123 days). Cremated; ashes scattered in North Atlantic Ocean.
  Relatives: Son of Henry Demarest Lloyd (social reformer, author) and Jessie (Bross) Lloyd; married to Lola Maverick (divorced 1916) and Madge Bird; grandson of William Bross (1825?-?).
  George Edward Powers (b. 1892) — also known as George E. Powers — of Watertown, Middlesex County, Mass.; Astoria, Queens, Queens County, N.Y.; Detroit, Wayne County, Mich. Born in Boston, Suffolk County, Mass., February 15, 1892. Sheet metal worker; candidate for borough president of Queens, New York, 1929 (Workers), 1933 (Communist); Workers candidate for U.S. Senator from Michigan, 1930; in April 1932, he was arrested at City Hall Park, during a demonstration which was characaterized as "riot"; convicted of unlawful assembly, but the sentence was suspended; also in 1932, he was publicly accused of taking part in an alleged Communist conspiracy to cause bank failures in Chicago by spreading rumors (in a "whispering campaign" of "anti-bank propaganda"); he denied this; Communist candidate for chief judge of New York Court of Appeals, 1932; vice-president, International Workers Order; following the Hitler-Stalin pact in 1939, he resigned from the Communist Party, took part in anti-Communist organizations; at Earl Browder's trial for passport fraud in 1940, he testified for the prosecution; Liberal candidate for New York state senate 7th District, 1948, 1950. Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of George E. Powers and Sarah Powers.
Farrell Dobbs Farrell Dobbs (1907-1983) — of Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minn.; New York. Born in Queen City, Schuyler County, Mo., July 25, 1907. Socialist. Truck driver; became involved with a militant Teamsters Union local in Minneapolis in the 1930s, and helped lead a general strike; joined the Socialist Workers Party in 1939; convicted in 1941 of treason under the anti-Communist Smith Act, and served one year in prison; Socialist Workers candidate for President of the United States, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960; national secretary of the Socialist Workers Party, 1953-72; historian. Member, Teamsters Union. Died in Pinole, Contra Costa County, Calif., October 31, 1983 (age 76 years, 98 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Isaac T. Dobbs (1883-1956).
  See also Wikipedia article
  Image source: The Militant, July 2, 1956
James P. Cannon James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) — also known as James P. Cannon — of New York. Born in Rosedale (now part of Kansas City), Wyandotte County, Kan., 1890. Socialist. Candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1922 (Workers, 10th District), 1928 (20th District); Workers candidate for Governor of New York, 1924; Trotskyist Anti-War candidate for mayor of New York City, N.Y., 1941. Irish ancestry. Became an open supporter of Leon Trotsky's opposition to Stalin about 1928, and was expelled from the Communist Party; became a major Trotskyist leader and theoretician, and one of the founders of the Socialist Workers Party. Arrested in 1941 and charged under the Smith Act; convicted in 1943, and served sixteen months in federal prison. Died in 1974 (age about 84 years). Burial location unknown.
  Books about James P. Cannon: Bryan D. Palmer, James P. Cannon and the Origins of the American Revolutionary Left, 1890-1928
  Image source: The Militant, July 2, 1956
  Edward Elwell Spafford (1878-1941) — also known as Edward E. Spafford — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Brewster, Putnam County, N.Y. Born in Springfield, Windsor County, Vt., March 12, 1878. Republican. Served in the U.S. Navy during World War I; lawyer; National Commander, American Legion, 1927-28; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 14th District, 1930. Member, American Legion. In 1941, during divorce proceedings, he was accused of conspiring with German agents in America; in an interview published in 1943 by journalist John Roy Carlson, he espoused strongly antisemitic and pro-Hitler views. Died, in the Naval Academy Hospital, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, Md., November 13, 1941 (age 63 years, 246 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Hiram Duncan Spafford (1841-1912) and Georgia F. Spafford; married, May 22, 1912, to Lucille M. Stevens (died 1914); married 1922 to Lillian Mercer Pierce.
  William Dudley Pelley (1890-1965) — of Asheville, Buncombe County, N.C.; Noblesville, Hamilton County, Ind. Born in Lynn, Essex County, Mass., March 12, 1890. Hollywood screenwriter in 1917-29 for about 12 films, including The Light in the Dark and The Shock, both starring Lon Chaney; founder (1933) and leader of the anti-Semitic Silver Legion of America organization (the "Silver Shirts", explicitly modeled after Adolf Hitler's Brownshirts); Christian candidate for President of the United States, 1936; arrested in April 1942 and charged with criminal sedition; convicted and sentenced to fifteen years in prison; released in 1950. Died in Noblesville, Hamilton County, Ind., July 1, 1965 (age 75 years, 111 days). Interment at Crownland Cemetery, Noblesville, Ind.
  Relatives: Son of Grace (Goodale) Pelley (born 1861) and William George Apsey Pelley (1867-1920); married, December 16, 1911, to Marion Harriet Stone (divorced); married, July 24, 1934, to Minna Helen Hansmann; married to Agnes Marion Henderson (1898-1970).
  Cross-reference: Gerald L. K. Smith
  See also Wikipedia article — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books by William Dudley Pelley: Know your karma; design for destiny
  Gerald Burton Winrod (1900-1957) — also known as Gerald B. Winrod — Born in Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kan., March 7, 1900. Republican. One of the founders, in 1925, of the group Defenders of the Christian Faith; candidate in primary for U.S. Senator from Kansas, 1938; sympathized with the Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, and and blamed the Depression and World War II on Jews, Catholics, and Communists; indicted in July 1942, with others, for sedition over an alleged conspiracy to cause insubordination in the Armed Forces in wartime; a mistrial was declared and charges were dropped. Died in Wichita, Sedgwick County, Kan., November 11, 1957 (age 57 years, 249 days). Interment at White Chapel Memorial Gardens, Wichita, Kan.
  C. Leon de Aryan — of San Diego, San Diego County, Calif. Candidate for mayor of San Diego, Calif., 1932. Charged with sedition during World War II; the charges were eventually dropped. Burial location unknown.
  Robert Morss Lovett (1870-1956) — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill.; Lake Zurich, Lake County, Ill. Born in Boston, Suffolk County, Mass., December 25, 1870. Progressive. University professor; novelist; playwright; candidate for Presidential Elector for Illinois, 1924; secretary of the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1939-43; Governor of U.S. Virgin Islands, 1940-41; removed from office as Secretary of the Virgin Islands, and barred from federal employment, by action of the U.S. Congress in 1943, over his ties to left-wing and purportedly Communist individuals and groups; the action was later struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court as an unconstitutional bill of attainder, and he received about $2,000 in salary owed to him. Atheist. Died, in St. Joseph's Hospital, Chicago, Cook County, Ill., February 8, 1956 (age 85 years, 45 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Augustus Sidney Lovett and Elizabeth (Russell) Lovett; married, June 4, 1895, to Ida Mott-Smith.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Lorence Elmer Asman (b. 1924) — also known as Lorence E. Asman; Larry Asman — of Kent County, Mich. Born in St. Louis, Gratiot County, Mich., January 29, 1924. Republican. In 1941, he became a follower and associate of anti-Semitic leader Gerald L. K. Smith; arrested by the Secret Service in 1943 for writing a "scurrilous" (presumably threatening) letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt; served in the U.S. Army during World War II; author of a inflammatory leaflet in 1946 titled 20,000 Little Brown Bastards which was widely distributed to stir up racial hatred against African-Americans; candidate in primary for Michigan state senate 16th District, 1960. Still living as of 1960.
  Gerald Lyman Kenneth Smith (1898-1976) — also known as Gerald L. K. Smith — of Shreveport, Caddo Parish, La.; Detroit, Wayne County, Mich.; Eureka Springs, Carroll County, Ark. Born in Pardeeville, Columbia County, Wis., February 27, 1898. Pastor; orator; political administrator and organizer for Huey P. Long, 1934-35; as a white supremacist, he joined and organized for William Dudley Pelley's Silver Shirts of America, an organization modeled directly on Adolf Hitler's Brownshirts; candidate for U.S. Senator from Michigan, 1942 (Republican primary), 1942; founder of the America First party; charged with sedition in 1944, as part of an alleged Nazi conspiracy; tried along with many others, but after seven months, a mistrial was declared; America First candidate for President of the United States, 1944; founder of the Christian Nationalist Crusade; advocated deportation from the U.S. of Jews and African-Americans. Disciples of Christ. Died, of pneumonia, in Glendale, Los Angeles County, Calif., April 15, 1976 (age 78 years, 48 days). Interment at Christ of the Ozarks Cemetery, Eureka Springs, Ark.
  Relatives: Son of Lyman Z. Smith and Sarah Smith; married, June 21, 1922, to Elna (Robe) Sorenson (1898-1981).
  Cross-reference: Charles J. Anderson, Jr. — Lorence E. Asman
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Joseph Ellsberry McWilliams (1904-1996) — also known as Joe McWilliams — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Hitchcock, Blaine County, Okla., 1904. Gave street-corner speeches in New York City, in which he denounced Jews and praised Adolf Hitler; arrested in 1940 when one of his speeches caused a riot; charged with sedition in 1944, as part of an alleged Nazi conspiracy; tried along with many others, but after seven months, a mistrial was declared; candidate in Republican primary for U.S. Representative from New York 18th District, 1940. Died in 1996 (age about 92 years). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
Corliss Lamont Corliss Lamont (1902-1995) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Englewood, Bergen County, N.J., March 28, 1902. Socialist. Author; lecturer; arrested on June 27, 1934, while picketing in support of a labor union at a furniture plant in Jersey City, N.J.; president, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship; this organization and its leaders were investigated for subversion by the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities; charged in 1946 with contempt of Congress for his refusal to provide records demanded by the committee; in 1951, the U.S. State Department denied a passport to him, based on his membership in what were deemed "Communist-front organizations"; on August 17, 1954, the U.S. Senate cited him with contempt of Congress for refusing to testify before Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy's subcommittee; subsequently indicted; pleaded not guilty; the indictment was dismissed in 1955; the Court of Appeals upheld the dismissal in 1956; candidate for U.S. Senator from New York, 1952 (American Labor), 1958 (Independent Socialist). Member, American Civil Liberties Union; NAACP; Phi Beta Kappa; American Academy of Political and Social Science. Died, of heart failure, in Ossining, Westchester County, N.Y., April 26, 1995 (age 93 years, 29 days). Interment at Brookside Cemetery, Englewood, N.J.
  Relatives: Son of Thomas William Lamont (1870-1948) and Florence Haskell (Corliss) Lamont (died 1952); married, June 8, 1928, to Margaret Hayes Irish (c.1905-1977); married 1962 to Helen Lamb (died 1975); married 1986 to Beth Keehner; granduncle of Ned Lamont (1966?-).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Image source: The Militant, November 3, 1958
  Richard Morford (c.1903-1986) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Onaway, Presque Isle County, Mich., about 1903. Presbyterian minister; vice-chair of New York American Labor Party, 1945-49; director, National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 1946-80; this organization and its leaders were investigated for subversion by the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities; charged in 1946 with contempt of Congress for his refusal to provide records demanded by the committee; tried in federal court in Washington; convicted in March 1948; his conviction was overturned by the Supreme Court; convicted again on re-trial; sentenced to three months in prison and fined $250. Presbyterian. Died, from pneumonia, in Madison, Dane County, Wis., September 7, 1986 (age about 83 years). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married to Aileen Hutson (died 1984).
  Karen Morley (1909-2003) — also known as Mildred Linton — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y.; Santa Monica, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Ottumwa, Wapello County, Iowa, December 12, 1909. Actress; her career ended in 1947, when she was blacklisted as a suspected Communist; American Labor candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1954. Female. Died, from pneumonia, in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif., March 8, 2003 (age 93 years, 86 days). Cremated; ashes scattered in North Pacific Ocean.
  Relatives: Married, November 5, 1932, to Charles Vidor (1900-1959; film director); married 1943 to Lloyd Gough (1907-1984; actor).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
  James Lustig (b. 1902) — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y.; Newark, Essex County, N.J. Born in Budapest, Hungary, 1902. Communist. Naturalized U.S. citizen; agent, United Electrical Workers; candidate for New York state senate 22nd District, 1932; member, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee; the group was investigated for subversion by the U.S. House Committee on Un-American Activities; indicted in 1947, along with other members, for contempt of Congress over their refusal to provide records demanded by the House committee; convicted in 1947; sentenced to three months in jail, and fined $500. Hungarian ancestry. Burial location unknown.
  Gus Hall (1910-2000) — also known as Arvo Kustaa Halberg — of Youngstown, Mahoning County, Ohio; Yonkers, Westchester County, N.Y. Born in Virginia, St. Louis County, Minn., October 8, 1910. Communist. Steelworker; union organizer and one of the leaders of the steelworkers' strike in 1937; candidate for mayor of Youngstown, Ohio, 1937; served in the U.S. Navy during World War II; indicted in 1948, and convicted in 1949, under the Smith Act, of conspiring to teach the violent overthrow of the U.S. government; fled to Mexico; arrested in 1951 and sent back; spent eight years in prison; candidate for President of the United States, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984. Finnish ancestry. Died, of complications from diabetes, in Lenox Hill Hospital, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., October 13, 2000 (age 90 years, 5 days). Interment at Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Ill.
  Relatives: Married 1935 to Elizabeth Turner.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  William Zebulon Foster (1881-1961) — also known as William Z. Foster; William Edward Foster — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y. Born in Taunton, Bristol County, Mass., February 25, 1881. Communist. Labor organizer; helped lead steelworkers strike in 1919; candidate for President of the United States, 1924, 1928, 1932; candidate for Governor of New York, 1930; arrested after a demonstration in 1930, and jailed for six months; indicted on July 20, 1948 under the Smith Act, and charged with conspiring to advocate the overthrow of the government; never tried due to illness. Irish ancestry. Died, in a sanatorium at Moscow, Russia, September 1, 1961 (age 80 years, 188 days). Cremated; ashes interred at Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow, Russia; cenotaph at Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Ill.
  Relatives: Son of James Foster; married to Ester Abramovitch.
  Epitaph: "Working Class Leader. Tireless Fighter for Socialism."
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Eugene Dennis (1905-1961) — also known as Francis Xavier Waldron; Tim Ryan — Born in Seattle, King County, Wash., August 10, 1905. Communist. Union organizer; fled to the Soviet Union in 1929 to avoid prosecution; returned to the U.S. in 1935; General Secretary, Communist Party, 1946-59, and Chairman, 1959-61; arrested in 1948, along with other party leaders, and charged with advocating the violent overthrow of the United States; convicted in 1949, and sentenced to five years in prison. Died, from cancer, in Mount Sinai Hospital, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., January 31, 1961 (age 55 years, 174 days). Interment at Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Ill.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Benjamin Jefferson Davis, Jr. (1903-1964) — also known as Benjamin J. Davis, Jr.; Ben Davis — of Atlanta, Fulton County, Ga.; Harlem, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Dawson, Terrell County, Ga., September 8, 1903. Communist. Lawyer; candidate for New York state senate 18th District, 1936; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York at-large, 1942; candidate for New York state attorney general, 1946; arrested in 1948, along with other party leaders, and charged with advocating the violent overthrow of the United States; convicted in 1949, and expelled from his New York city council seat; served more than three years in prison. African ancestry. Died, from lung cancer, in Beth Israel Hospital, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., August 22, 1964 (age 60 years, 349 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Benjamin Jefferson Davis (1870-?).
  See also Wikipedia article — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Carl Winter (1906-1991) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minn.; Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif.; Michigan. Born in 1906. Communist. Candidate for New York state senate 13th District, 1932; candidate for U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1940; convicted in 1949 under the Smith Act, for conspiring to advocate the overthrow of the government; served five years in prison. Died in 1991 (age about 85 years). Interment at Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Ill.
  Relatives: Married to Helen Allison Winter (1908-2001) (daughter of Alfred Wagenknecht and Hortense Allison Wagenknecht; niece of Elmer T. Allison).
  Political family: Winter-Wagenknecht family.
  John Stewart Service (1909-1999) — also known as John S. Service — Born in Chengdu, China, August 3, 1909. U.S. Consul in Wellington, as of 1947. One of several U.S. diplomats whose wartime reports from China detailed the weakness and corruption of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government, and and accurately predicted the triumph of the Chinese Communists in the ensuing civil war. These reports were held against him as evidence of disloyalty, notably by Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, who in 1950 called him "a known associate and collaborator with Communists." Under pressure from McCarthy, the State Department dismissed him in 1951; he was reinstated by a unanimous ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1956. Died in Oakland, Alameda County, Calif., February 3, 1999 (age 89 years, 184 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married 1932 to Carolina Schulz.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Howard Melvin Fast (1914-2003) — also known as Howard Fast; "E. V. Cunningham"; "Walter Ericson" — of Teaneck, Bergen County, N.J. Born in New York City (unknown county), N.Y., November 11, 1914. Communist. Novelist; in 1950, suspected of sedition, he was called before the House Un-American Activities Committee, where he refused to name fellow members of the Communist Party; convicted of contempt of Congress and sentenced to three months in prison; awarded the Stalin Peace Prize in 1953; American Labor candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 23rd District, 1952. Jewish. Died in Old Greenwich, Greenwich, Fairfield County, Conn., March 12, 2003 (age 88 years, 121 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Barney Fast and Ida (Miller) Fast; married, June 6, 1937, to Bette Cohen; married 1999 to Mercedes O'Connor.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  William Albertson (1910-1972) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Detroit, Wayne County, Mich. Born in Odessa, Russia (now Ukraine), May 7, 1910. Communist. Candidate for New York state senate 16th District, 1932; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York 17th District, 1934; secretary-treasurer, Local 16, Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union. Indicted, along with other Communist leaders, by a federal grand jury in August, 1951; tried, in Pittsburgh, starting in November 1952, and convicted in August, 1953, under the Smith Act, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government; sentenced to five years in prison; the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the convictions in 1956. Expelled from the Communist Party in 1964 over claims that he served as an undercover police agent; in 1976, it was revealed that the charge was founded on a phony letter planted by the F.B.I. Died, in an automobile accident, February 19, 1972 (age 61 years, 288 days). Burial location unknown.
  Irving Charles Velson (1913-1976) — also known as Irving C. Velson; Irving Charles Shavelson; Charles Wilson; "Nick"; "Shavey" — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y.; San Francisco, Calif. Born in New York City (unknown county), N.Y., June 3, 1913. Machinist; boilermaker; shipfitter; president, Local 13, Shipbuilders Union; American Labor candidate for New York state senate 11th District, 1938; served in the U.S. Navy during World War II; in 1951 and 1953, he was brought to testify before Congressional committees about his Communist and Soviet activities, including efforts to infiltrate the U.S. military with Soviet spies; he repeatedly refused to answer questions, invoking his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination; as a result, he was "barred for life" by the Shipbuilders' union; later, served as international representative for the (West Coast) International Longshoreman's and Warehousemen's Union. Venona Project documents (decrypted Soviet messages from the World War II era), released in 1995, show that he was an agent for Soviet military intelligence under the code name "Nick". Died in San Francisco, Calif., February 18, 1976 (age 62 years, 260 days). Cremated; ashes scattered in San Francisco Bay.
  Relatives: Son of Clara Lemlich Shavelson and Joseph 'Joe' Shavelson (1889-1951); married, January 26, 1937, to Ruth Young Velson (1916-?).
  Political family: Velson-Shavelson family of Brooklyn, New York.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
Israel Amter Israel Amter (1881-1954) — of Ohio; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Denver, Colo., March 26, 1881. Communist. Musician; Workers Communist candidate for U.S. Senator from Ohio, 1928; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1930 (23rd District), 1938 (at-large); candidate for Governor of New York, 1932, 1934, 1942; candidate for borough president of Manhattan, New York, 1933. Indicted in 1951 for conspiring to teach and advocate the violent overthrow of the government, but due to poor health, was never tried. Died, from Parkinson's disease, in Columbus Hospital, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., November 24, 1954 (age 73 years, 243 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married 1903 to Sadie Van Veen.
  Image source: Marxists Internet Archive
  William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963) — also known as W. E. B. Du Bois — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Accra, Ghana. Born in Great Barrington, Berkshire County, Mass., February 23, 1868. College professor; sociologist; historian; civil rights leader; Pan-Africanist; one of the founders of the NAACP; received the Spingarn Medal in 1920; member of New York American Labor Party Executive Committee, 1949; American Labor candidate for U.S. Senator from New York, 1950; in 1951, he and four other leaders of the Peace Information Center, which was alleged to be acting on behalf of the Soviet Union, were indicted for their failure to register as foreign agents; the case was dismissed in 1952, but his passport was withheld until 1958; awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1959. African ancestry. Member, NAACP. In 1895, he was the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Died in Accra, Ghana, August 27, 1963 (age 95 years, 185 days). Entombed at Du Bois Memorial Centre, Accra, Ghana.
  Relatives: Son of Alfred Du Bois and Mary Silvina (Burghardt) Du Bois; married, May 12, 1896, to Nina Gomer (1871-1950); married 1951 to Shirley Graham (1896-1977).
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books by W. E. B. Du Bois: The Souls of Black Folk
  Albert Jason Lima (1907-1989) — also known as Albert J. Lima — of San Francisco, Calif.; Oakland, Alameda County, Calif. Born in Mendocino County, Calif., August 31, 1907. Communist. Candidate for U.S. Representative from California 1st District, 1940, 1942; candidate for Presidential Elector for California, 1972. Convicted in 1952 of conspiracy to overthrow the United States government; the verdict was overturned on appeal. Died, of cancer, in Oakland, Alameda County, Calif., June 3, 1989 (age 81 years, 276 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married to Helen Lima (1917-2005).
  Political family: Adams-Baldwin-Otis family of Boston, Massachusetts (subset of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  Charles Wheeler Thayer (1910-1969) — also known as Charles W. Thayer — of Villanova, Delaware County, Pa.; Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa. Born in Villanova, Delaware County, Pa., February 9, 1910. U.S. Vice Consul in Moscow, 1937, 1940; Berlin, 1937-38; Hamburg, 1939-40; Kabul, as of 1943; colonel in the U.S. Army during World War II; head of the State Department's international broadcasting division, including the "Voice of America", 1947-49; U.S. Consul General in Munich, 1952-53; in March 1953, when attacks on his loyalty by U.S. Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy inspired a State Department investigation into his diplomatic career, he resigned from the Foreign Service; writer. Died, during heart surgery, in Salzburg, Austria, August 27, 1969 (age 59 years, 199 days). Interment at Church of the Redeemer Cemetery, Bryn Mawr, Pa.
  Relatives: Son of George C. Thayer and Gertrude May (Wheeler) Thayer (c.1870-1964); brother of Avis Howard Thayer (1912-1981; who married Charles Eustis Bohlen); married, March 27, 1950, to Cynthia (Dunn) Cochrane (daughter of James Clement Dunn); uncle of Avis Thayer Bohlen (1940-).
  Political family: Bohlen-Eustis-Thayer family of Bryn Mawr and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (subset of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) — also known as "Rebel Girl" — of New York. Born in Concord, Merrimack County, N.H., August 7, 1890. Communist. Speaker and organizer for the Industrial Workers of the World ("Wobblies") in 1906-16; one of the founders of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), which later expelled her for being a Communist; candidate for U.S. Representative from New York, 1942 (Communist, at-large), 1954 (Peoples' Rights, 24th District); convicted under the anti-Communist Smith Act, and sentenced to three years in prison; released in 1957; became National Chair of the Communist Party U.S.A. in 1961. Female. Irish ancestry. Member, American Civil Liberties Union; Industrial Workers of the World. Died in Russia, September 5, 1964 (age 74 years, 29 days). Interment at Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Ill.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
Anne Braden Anne McCarty Braden (1924-2006) — also known as Anne Braden; Anne McCarty — of Louisville, Jefferson County, Ky. Born in Louisville, Jefferson County, Ky., July 28, 1924. Newspaper reporter; labor organizer; civil rights activist starting in the 1940s; in May 1954, to fight segregation, she and her husband bought a house in a white neighborhood on behalf of a Black family; this sparked furious and violent opposition and the bombing of the house; she and others were charged with sedition; her husband was the first to be convicted, but then, in 1956, all state sedition laws were struck down; Communist candidate for Presidential Elector for Kentucky, 1972. Female. Episcopalian. Died in Louisville, Jefferson County, Ky., March 6, 2006 (age 81 years, 221 days). Interment at Eminence Cemetery, Eminence, Ky.
  Relatives: Married 1948 to Carl Braden (1914-1975).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Image source: Kentucky Center for African-American Heritage
  Arthur Asher Miller (1915-2005) — also known as Arthur Miller — of Roxbury, Litchfield County, Conn. Born in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., October 17, 1915. Democrat. Playwright; author of such plays as "Death of a Salesman" and "The Crucible"; received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1949; because he was suspected of ties to Communist organizations, his passport was denied in 1954; compelled to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1956; he refused to name his political colleagues, and was found guilty of contempt of Congress in 1957; the conviction was overturned on appeal; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Connecticut, 1968. Agnostic. Jewish ancestry. Died in Roxbury, Litchfield County, Conn., February 10, 2005 (age 89 years, 116 days). Interment at Great Oak Cemetery, Roxbury, Conn.
  Relatives: Son of Isidore Miller and Augusta (Barnett) Miller; brother of Joan Copeland (actress); married, August 5, 1940, to Mary Grace Slattery (divorced 1956); married, January 29, 1956, to Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962; actress; divorced 1961); married, February 17, 1962, to Inge Morath (1923-2002).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
John T. McManus John T. McManus (1904-1961) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y.; Montrose, Westchester County, N.Y. Born in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., November 25, 1904. Reporter and movie critic for the New York Times; movie and radio critic for Time magazine; entertainment editor for PM (newspaper); general manager, Weekly Guardian newspaper; president, Newspaper Guild of New York, 1943-47; international vice president of the American Newspaper Guild; member, New York CIO Council; member of New York American Labor Party Executive Committee, 1945; candidate for Governor of New York, 1950 (American Labor), 1954 (American Labor), 1958 (Independent Socialist); in 1956, called before a U.S. Senate subcommittee, he took the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination in refusing to answer questions about the Communist Party. Died, of a heart attack, in Montrose, Westchester County, N.Y., November 22, 1961 (age 56 years, 362 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Edward J. McManus; married to Jane Bedell.
  Image source: The Militant, November 24, 1958
  William Howard Melish (1910-1986) — also known as W. Howard Melish — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born in Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., May 11, 1910. Episcopal priest; vice-chair of New York American Labor Party, 1945-49; ousted in 1957 as rector of Holy Trinity Church in Brooklyn, over his allegedly pro-Communist activities as chairman of the National Council of Soviet-American Friendship. Episcopalian. Died in Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., June 15, 1986 (age 76 years, 35 days). Interment at Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio.
  Relatives: Son of Marguerite (McComas) Melish (1873-1941) and John Howard Melish (1874-1969); married to Mary Jane Dietz (1913-1999).
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Anthony Dryden Marshall (1924-2014) — also known as Anthony D. Marshall; Tony Marshall; Anthony Dryden Kuser — of Providence, Providence County, R.I.; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., May 30, 1924. Republican. Served in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II; U.S. Consul in Istanbul, as of 1958-59; U.S. Ambassador to Malagasy Republic, 1969-71; Trinidad and Tobago, 1972-73; Kenya, 1973-77; Seychelles, 1976-77; in 1971, he was accused in press reports of involvement in a supposed plot to overthrow the President, Philibert Tsiranana; the Malagasy government declared him persona non grata, and expelled him fron the country; theatrical producer; guardian of his ailing mother, Brooke Astor; alleged to have diverted millions of dollars to his own theatrical productions, and removed works of art from her apartment; his son Philip sued, alleging abuse and demanding his removal as guardian; an independent investigation found no evidence for abuse, but revealed financial misconduct; indicted in 2007, and tried on 16 charges in 2009; the trial lasted six months; ultimately convicted and sentenced to one to three years in prison; served eight weeks and was released on medical parole. Member, Rotary. Died, at New York Presbyterian Hospital, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., November 30, 2014 (age 90 years, 184 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Step-son of Charles H. Marshall and Vincent Astor; son of John Dryden Kuser (1897-1964) and Brooke (Russell) Marshall (1902-2007); married, July 26, 1947, to Elizabeth Cynthia Cryan; married, December 29, 1962, to Thelma Hoegnell (divorced 1992); married 1992 to Charlene (Tyler) Gilbert; great-grandson of John Fairfield Dryden.
  Political family: Dryden-Marshall family of New York City, New York.
  See also U.S. State Dept career summary — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books about Anthony D. Marshall: Meryl Gordon, Mrs. Astor Regrets: The Hidden Betrayals of a Family Beyond Reproach
"Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
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The Political Graveyard

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