The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History
Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace

Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace: Misfeasance
Malfeasance, misconduct, neglect of duty or responsibility

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in chronological order

  Ephraim Paine (1730-1785) — of New York. Born in Canterbury, Windham County, Conn., August 19, 1730. County judge in New York, 1778-81; member of New York state senate Middle District, 1779-81, 1782-85; Delegate to Continental Congress from New York, 1784. Expelled from the New York State Senate on March 15, 1781, for neglect of duty. Died in Amenia, Dutchess County, N.Y., August 10, 1785 (age 54 years, 356 days). Interment at Red Meeting House Cemetery, Near Amenia, Dutchess County, N.Y.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page
  Samuel Chase (1741-1811) — of Maryland. Born near Princess Anne, Somerset County, Md., April 17, 1741. Delegate to Continental Congress from Maryland, 1774-78, 1781-82, 1783-85; signer, Declaration of Independence, 1776; state court judge in Maryland, 1788; Associate Justice of U.S. Supreme Court, 1796-1811; died in office 1811. Episcopalian. Articles of impeachment were filed against him in 1804 on charges of malfeasance in office; tried by the Senate in 1805 and acquitted of all charges. Died in Washington, D.C., June 19, 1811 (age 70 years, 63 days). Interment at Old St. Paul's Cemetery, Baltimore, Md.; memorial monument at Constitution Gardens, Washington, D.C.
  Cross-reference: Luther Martin
  See also congressional biography — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  William Hull (1753-1825) — Born in Derby, New Haven County, Conn., June 24, 1753. Colonel in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member of Massachusetts state senate, 1798-1805; Governor of Michigan Territory, 1805-12; general in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812. Following his surrender of Detroit to the British in 1812, was found guilty by a court-martial of cowardice, neglect of duty, and unofficerlike conduct, and sentenced to death; President Madison accepted this decision but remitted the sentence. Died in Newton, Middlesex County, Mass., November 29, 1825 (age 72 years, 158 days). Interment at Newton Cemetery, Newton, Mass.
  John Armstrong Jr. (1758-1843) — also known as "Old Soldier"; "Monsieur Tombo" — of Pennsylvania; Dutchess County, N.Y. Born in Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pa., November 25, 1758. Republican. Major in Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; secretary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1783-87; Delegate to Continental Congress from Pennsylvania, 1787-88; U.S. Senator from New York, 1800-02, 1803-04; U.S. Minister to France, 1804-10; general in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; U.S. Secretary of War, 1813-14; blamed for the British capture of Washington, D.C. in August 1814, and forced to resign; member of New York state assembly from Dutchess County, 1825. Catholic. Slaveowner. Died in Red Hook, Dutchess County, N.Y., April 1, 1843 (age 84 years, 127 days). Entombed at Rhinebeck Cemetery, Rhinebeck, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of John Armstrong and Rebecca (Lyon) Armstrong; brother of James Armstrong; married, January 18, 1789, to Alida Livingston (daughter of Robert R. Livingston (1718-1775); sister-in-law of Morgan Lewis; sister of Robert R. Livingston (1746-1813) and Edward Livingston; granddaughter of Robert Livingston); grandfather of John Jacob Astor III; great-grandfather of William Waldorf Astor; second great-grandfather of William Astor Chanler and Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler.
  Political family: Livingston-Schuyler family of New York (subset of the Four Thousand Related Politicians).
  The World War II Liberty ship SS John Armstrong (built 1942-43 at Houston, Texas; scrapped 1964) was named for him.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — U.S. State Dept career summary — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Samuel W. Davies (c.1776-1843) — of Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio. Born in England, about 1776. Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1833-43. Tried by the city council in 1842 for mishandling a bank riot, and found guilty, but excused due to poor health. Died December 22, 1843 (age about 67 years). Burial location unknown.
  John M. Hansford (c.1800-1844) — of Texas. Born about 1800. Member of Texas Republic House of Representatives, 1838-40; judge of Texas Republic, 1840-42. Resigned as judge in 1842 while being impeached over his handling of a trial arising out of the "Regulator-Moderator War" in East Texas. Killed by members of the Regulators who had seized his home, in Texas, 1844 (age about 44 years). Burial location unknown.
  Hansford County, Tex. is named for him.
  John Fitzpatrick (1844-1919) — of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Born May 1, 1844. Democrat. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from Louisiana, 1880, 1884; mayor of New Orleans, La., 1892-96. In 1894, a suit was brought in an attempt to impeach and remove him from office based on a long list of malfeasance and corruption charges; a trial was held, and he was acquitted on all charges. Died April 8, 1919 (age 74 years, 342 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Louis Stern (c.1856-1901) — of St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minn. Born in Germany, about 1856. Democrat. Naturalized U.S. citizen; newspaper reporter; U.S. Commercial Agent (Consul) in Bamberg, 1893-1901. Jewish. Arrested and fined in Kissingen, Germany, 1895, for insulting the Baron von Thuengen; also charged with misrepresenting his 15-year-old son as being twelve in order to get cheaper passage to Europe for him on a steamship; the U.S. Consul General in Berlin asserted that Mr. Stern was "very harshly and unjustly treated". Depressed over financial problems and perceived anti-Semitism, he began neglecting his work; he was recalled as commercial agent in 1901, but remained at Bamberg; his failure to return money he had collected on behalf of U.S. citizens led to a judgement against him for 2,000 marks, which he was unable to pay; he died by self-inflicted gunshot, in the public gardens at Bamberg, Germany, June 10, 1901 (age about 45 years). Burial location unknown.
  John J. Girimondi — of Hazleton, Luzerne County, Pa.; Shakopee, Scott County, Minn.; San Francisco, Calif. Catholic priest; naturalized U.S. citizen; concealed his clerical background from Congressmen who recommended him for a consular appointment; U.S. Consul in Santos, 1900-01; removed as consul for neglect of duty and possible embezzlement; went to Italy and misrepresented himself as U.S. Consul to Persia; arrested by Italian authorities on charges of betraying a young woman, and imprisoned there. Catholic. Italian ancestry. Burial location unknown.
  John Goodnow (born c.1858) — of Minnesota. Born about 1858. Republican. Minnesota's most prominent advocate of William McKinley for president in 1896; U.S. Consul General in Shanghai, 1897-1905; charges of malfeasance against him were made by Americans in China to the State Department in 1902, and to President Theodore Roosevelt in December 1904; two months later, his resignation was announced; became an advisor to the Chinese government in 1906. Burial location unknown.
  Frederic Duncan MacMaster — also known as Frederic MacMaster — Served in the U.S. Army during the Spanish-American War; member of Theodore Roosevelt's "Rough Rider" regiment; U.S. Consul in Zanzibar, 1905-06; dismissed from his consular position in 1906 over multiple instances of misconduct, including the assault of police officers in a bar-room; en route to the U.S., he stopped in Nice, France, and obtained a bank loan by pretending to be U.S. Consul Harold S. Van Buren. Burial location unknown.
  John Francis Ahearn (1853-1920) — also known as John F. Ahearn — of New York, New York County, N.Y. Born in New York, New York County, N.Y., April 18, 1853. Democrat. Member of New York state assembly from New York County 4th District, 1882; member of New York state senate, 1890-1902 (6th District 1890-93, 8th District 1894-95, 10th District 1896-1902); delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1896, 1912, 1916, 1920; borough president of Manhattan, New York, 1904-09; delegate to New York state constitutional convention 11th District, 1915. Irish ancestry. Member, Tammany Hall. Following an investigation, Gov. Charles Evans Hughes denounced his administration as "flagrantly inefficient and wasteful" and ordered him removed from office as Manhattan Borough President on December 9, 1907. Following a long legal battle, he finally left office in 1909. Died, of pleurisy, in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., December 19, 1920 (age 67 years, 245 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married to Elizabeth Atwell; father of Edward J. Ahearn and William J. Ahearn.
  Political family: Ahearn family of New York City, New York.
  Louis Francis Haffen (1854-1935) — also known as Louis F. Haffen; "Father of the Bronx" — of Melrose, Westchester County (now part of Bronx, Bronx County), N.Y.; Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y. Born in Melrose, Westchester County (now part of Bronx, Bronx County), N.Y., November 6, 1854. Democrat. Civil engineer; engineer, New York City Department of Parks, 1883-93; commissioner of street improvement in Annexed Territory (Bronx), 1893-98; borough president of Bronx, New York, 1898-1909; removed 1909; removed from office by Gov. Charles Evans Hughes over maladministration charges, 1909; delegate to New York state constitutional convention 22nd District, 1915; member of New York Democratic State Committee, 1930. Catholic. German and Irish ancestry. Member, Royal Arcanum; Tammany Hall. Died, from arteriosclerosis, in Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y., December 25, 1935 (age 81 years, 49 days). Interment at Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of Mathias Haffen and Catharine (Hayes) Haffen; married 1886 to Caroline Kurz.
  Haffen Park, Bronx, New York, is named for him.
  See also Wikipedia article
  George N. Rigby — of Yonkers, Westchester County, N.Y.; Ormond Beach, Volusia County, Fla. Republican. Member of New York state assembly from Westchester County 1st District, 1904-05; member of condemnation commission for appraising property for site of proposed Hill View Reservoir in Westchester County; censured by the New York Supreme Court in 1910 for unnecessary delay, such as holding 65 hearings o one parcel; removed from the position in 1915 because he had moved to Florida; mayor of Ormond Beach, Fla., 1924-26. Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Married to Maud Lawrence.
  James Kellogg Apgar (1862-1940) — also known as James K. Apgar — of Peekskill, Westchester County, N.Y. Born in Peekskill, Westchester County, N.Y., November 8, 1862. Republican. Private secretary and clerk to Assembly Speaker James W. Husted, 1884-87 and 1890; clerk to Assembly Speaker Fremont Cole, 1888-89; clerk to Lt. Gov. Charles T. Saxton, 1894-96; private secretary to Rep. William L. Ward, 1896-97; member of New York state assembly from Westchester County 3rd District, 1899-1907; defeated, 1897; alternate delegate to Republican National Convention from New York, 1900; member of condemnation commission for appraising property for site of proposed Hill View Reservoir in Westchester County; censured by the New York Supreme Court in 1910 for unnecessary delay, such as holding 65 hearings on one parcel; Westchester County Register, 1919-24; village president of Peekskill, New York, 1925-27. Member, Freemasons; Royal Arch Masons; Elks. Died in Peekskill, Westchester County, N.Y., September 21, 1940 (age 77 years, 318 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Joseph A. Apgar and Eleanor (Herbert) Apgar; married, June 21, 1892, to Cecilia Annie Bellefeuille.
  Lawrence Gresser (1851-1935) — also known as Lorenz Gresser; "Honest Larry" — of Queens, Queens County, N.Y. Born in Bavaria, Germany, January 1, 1851. Shoe manufacturer; borough president of Queens, New York, 1908-11; removed 1911; removed from office as borough president by Gov. John A. Dix, for neglect of duty in failing to prevent corruption among his subordinates. Died, in the rectory of the Church of the Holy Family, Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., January 30, 1935 (age 84 years, 29 days). Interment at St. John's Cemetery, Middle Village, Queens, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of Johann Gresser and Phillipina (Bingert) Gresser; married 1869 to Margaret Beck; married 1904 to Kathryn Beechinor; father of Lawrence Thomas Gresser; grandfather of Lawrence T. Gresser Jr..
  Political family: Gresser family of New York.
  Thomas Mott Osborne (1859-1926) — also known as Thomas M. Osborne; "Tom Brown" — of Auburn, Cayuga County, N.Y. Born in Auburn, Cayuga County, N.Y., September 23, 1859. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1896, 1924; Independent candidate for Lieutenant Governor of New York, 1898; mayor of Auburn, N.Y., 1903-05. Son of the founder of International Harvester; prison reformer; New York State Public Service Commissioner; New York State Fish and Game Commissioner, 1911; warden of Sing Sing Prison, Ossining, N.Y., 1914-16; indicted by a grand jury in 1915 for alleged perjury and neglect of duty; tried, but the charges were dismissed; commander of naval prison, Portsmouth, N.H., 1917-20. Died in Auburn, Cayuga County, N.Y., October 20, 1926 (age 67 years, 27 days). Interment at Fort Hill Cemetery, Auburn, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of David Munson Osborne and Eliza Lidy (Wright) Osborne; married 1886 to Agnes Devens; father of Charles Devens Osborne and Lithgow Osborne; first cousin six times removed of Benjamin Franklin; second cousin once removed of Charles Taylor Sherman, Barzillai Bulkeley Kellogg, William Tecumseh Sherman, Lampson Parker Sherman and John Sherman; third cousin once removed of Wharton Barker; third cousin thrice removed of Ira Yale; fourth cousin of Dwight Arthur Silliman; fourth cousin once removed of Howkin Bulkley Beardslee, Henry Jarvis Raymond, Edwin Olmstead Keeler and Asbury Elliott Kellogg.
  Political family: Kellogg-Adams-Seymour-Chapin family of Connecticut and New York (subset of the Four Thousand Related Politicians).
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Hudson Snowden Marshall (1870-1931) — also known as H. Snowden Marshall — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Baltimore, Md., January 15, 1870. Lawyer; law partner of Bartow S. Weeks, George Gordon Battle, and James A. O'Gorman; U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, 1913-17; in 1915-16, U.S. Rep. Frank Buchanan (who was at the time being indicted by a federal grand jury) introduced impeachment resolutions against Marshall; the charges, including malfeasance in the handling of past cases, were investigated by a House Judiciary subcommittee, which held hearings in New York, and inquired into the proceedings of the grand jury which had indicted Rep. Buchanan; Marshall wrote a critical letter to the subcommittee, impugning its motives; based on this letter, the full House voted to find him in contempt of Congress, and ordered his arrest; on appeal, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the authority of the House to punish for contempt extended only to actions which directly interfered with its proceedings. Member, American Bar Association. Died in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., May 29, 1931 (age 61 years, 134 days). Interment at Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, N.Y.
  Relatives: Son of Charles Marshall and Rebecca (Snowden) Marshall; half-brother of Emily Rosalie Snowden Marshall (who married Somerville Pinkney Tuck); married 1900 to Isabel Couper Stiles; uncle of Somerville Pinkney Tuck Jr.; great-grandnephew of John Marshall.
  Political families: Harrison-Randolph-Marshall-Cabell family of Virginia; Tuck-Claude family of Annapolis, Maryland (subsets of the Four Thousand Related Politicians).
  Charles M. Slaughter — of Athens, Athens County, Ohio. Mayor of Athens, Ohio, 1910-14. Charged with misconduct as justice of the peace; convicted on a lesser charge of misappropriating public funds; served about a year in prison; pardoned; made restitution. Burial location unknown.
  Warren Jay Terhune (1869-1920) — also known as Warren J. Terhune — of Hackensack, Bergen County, N.J. Born in Midland Park, Bergen County, N.J., May 3, 1869. Served in the U.S. Navy during the Spanish-American War; U.S. Navy commander; Governor of American Samoa; died in office 1920. Three days before he was to face an inquiry into charges against his administration, he shot himself in the heart, in a bathroom of the Executive Mansion, Utulei, American Samoa, November 3, 1920 (age 51 years, 184 days); later, the Navy exonerated him; his accuser, Lieutenant Commander Creed H. Boucher, was courtmartialed and found guilty of fomenting unrest among the Samoans. Interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.
  Relatives: Married to Josephine Lee Smith.
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Robert V. Mundy (b. 1854) — of Bay City, Bay County, Mich. Born in New Jersey, 1854. Hardware business; mayor of Bay City, Mich., 1917-21. In March, 1921, a grand jury charged him with misfeasance in office and neglect of duty, in his tolerance of vice such as illegal liquor sales, prostitution, and gambling in Bay City, and called for the common council to remove him from office. Mundy disputed the grand jury's authority to make this kind of report, and on his motion, it was stricken from the court record. Nonetheless, his organization was defeated in the election shortly afterward. Burial location unknown.
  Harmon Mortimore Kephart (b. 1865) — also known as Harmon M. Kephart — of Connellsville, Fayette County, Pa. Born in Frankstown, Blair County, Pa., July 17, 1865. Republican. Railroad work; hotel owner; member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives from Fayette County, 1895-96; delegate to Republican National Convention from Pennsylvania, 1908; chief clerk, Pennsylvania State Senate, 1909; Pennsylvania state treasurer, 1917-21. Member, Elks. Charged in 1922 with failure to keep correct accounts and to make required reports while he was state treasurer; investigators found money missing for various periods, costing the state some $11,000 in interest income; pleaded no contest in 1923 and fined $3,425 and costs. Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Samuel A. Kephart and Henrietta B. (Wolfe) Kephart.
  Harry Micajah Daugherty (1860-1941) — also known as Harry M. Daugherty — of Washington Court House, Fayette County, Ohio; Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio. Born in Washington Court House, Fayette County, Ohio, January 26, 1860. Republican. Lawyer; Fayette County Prosecuting Attorney; member of Ohio state house of representatives, 1890-94; delegate to Republican National Convention from Ohio, 1904, 1908, 1912, 1924; U.S. Attorney General, 1921-24. Methodist. Scotch-Irish ancestry. Subject of a Senate investigation of his conduct as Attorney General; resigned under fire; indicted on charges of conspiracy to defraud the U.S. government, but acquitted in 1927. Died in Columbus, Franklin County, Ohio, October 12, 1941 (age 81 years, 259 days). Interment at Washington Cemetery, Washington Court House, Ohio.
  Relatives: Son of John H. Daugherty and Jane A. (Draper) Daugherty; married, September 3, 1884, to Lucie Walker.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Books by Harry M. Daugherty: Inside Story of the Harding Tragedy (1932)
  William Warring Gordon (1874-1963) — also known as William W. Gordon — of Kansas City, Wyandotte County, Kan. Born in Owen County, Ky., June 13, 1874. Member of Kansas state legislature, 1910; mayor of Kansas City, Kan., 1923-26; removed 1926. Member, Freemasons; Odd Fellows. Charged in September 1926 with 25 counts of official misconduct, and removed from office as mayor. Died May 26, 1963 (age 88 years, 347 days). Interment at Memorial Park Cemetery, Kansas City, Kan.
  Florence Elizabeth Smith Knapp (1875-1949) — also known as Florence E. S. Knapp; Florence Elizabeth Smith — of Syracuse, Onondaga County, N.Y. Born in Syracuse, Onondaga County, N.Y., March 25, 1875. Republican. School teacher; superintendent of schools; dean, College of Home Economics, Syracuse University; delegate to Republican National Convention from New York, 1920, 1924 (alternate); secretary of state of New York, 1925-27; in 1927, an investigation discovered her maladministration of the 1925 state census; she had paid salaries to relatives and others who did no census work, forged indorsements on checks, received money she was not entitled to, and burned state records to conceal evidence of these things; resigned her position at Syracuse University; indicted on various charges in 1928, tried twice and eventually convicted of grand larceny; sentenced to 30 days in jail. Female. Episcopalian. Member, Grange. Died, following a heart attack, in Marcy State Hospital (insane asylum), Marcy, Oneida County, N.Y., October 26, 1949 (age 74 years, 215 days). Interment at Oakwood Cemetery, Syracuse, N.Y.
  Relatives: Daughter of James E. Smith and Mary (Hancock) Smith; married to Philip Schuyler Knapp.
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Paris Montrose (c.1895-1961) — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born about 1895. Republican. Lawyer; candidate for New York state assembly from Kings County 22nd District, 1927, 1928. In 1929, he was one of several Brooklyn lawyers who were disciplined for ambulance chasing activities and paying insurance company adjusters for favorable settlement of claims; his license to practice law was suspended for two years. Died, of cancer, in the Memorial Center for Cancer and Allied Diseases of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., February 14, 1961 (age about 66 years). Burial location unknown.
  James P. Kohler — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Lawyer; secretary to New York City Mayor William J. Gaynor; candidate for Justice of New York Supreme Court 2nd District, 1920. In 1929, he was one of several Brooklyn lawyers who were disciplined for ambulance chasing activities; his license to practice law was suspended for 30 days. Burial location unknown.
  Mortimer J. Wohl (1888-1931) — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y. Born in Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., March 20, 1888. Republican. Lawyer; served in the U.S. Army during World War I; candidate for New York state assembly from Kings County 18th District, 1921. Member, American Legion. In 1929, he was one of several Brooklyn lawyers who were charged with ambulance chasing activities; he disputed the charges. Died, from septicemia, in Jewish Hospital, Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., October 14, 1931 (age 43 years, 208 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Samuel Wohl and Fannie Whol; married, November 11, 1923, to Adelaide Finkelstein.
  Jacob P. Nathanson (1901-1986) — of Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y.; Lake Worth (now Lake Worth Beach), Palm Beach County, Fla. Born in Russia, February 21, 1901. Democrat. Lawyer; member of New York state assembly from Kings County 14th District, 1927-33; defeated in primary, 1933. Jewish. Charged in 1930 with professional misconduct by the Brooklyn Bar Association, over his handling of a client's $500 bail payment; suspended from the practice of law in 1931, and ordered to pay restitution. Indicted in October and November 1938 on charges of forgery, grand larceny, and subornation of perjury, over his involvement in fraudulent bail bonds; pleaded guilty to subornation of perjury, and testified against other conspirators; disbarred in 1939. Died in Palm Beach County, Fla., March 2, 1986 (age 85 years, 9 days). Interment somewhere in Palm Beach County, Fla.
Frank D. McKay Frank D. McKay (1883-1965) — of Grand Rapids, Kent County, Mich. Born in Grand Rapids, Kent County, Mich., November 4, 1883. Republican. Financier; political boss who dominated Republican politics in Michigan for years; delegate to Republican National Convention from Michigan, 1920, 1928, 1932 (alternate), 1936, 1940, 1944; Michigan state treasurer, 1925-30; investigated by a grand jury in 1931 over his handling of state funds while Treasurer; member of Republican National Committee from Michigan, 1940-44; subject of three federal grand jury investigations in 1940 over alleged fraud, extortion and kickbacks; indicted in 1944 for bribery of state legislators; hired a Purple Gang figure to murder the star witness, State Sen. Warren G. Hooper, and the case collapsed; charged in 1945, along with William McKeighan, with conspiracy to violate state liquor laws; tried in 1946; the judge directed a verdict of not guilty. Died in Miami Beach, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla., January 12, 1965 (age 81 years, 69 days). Entombed at Greenwood Cemetery, Grand Rapids, Mich.
  Relatives: Son of James D. McKay and Ellen (Zimmerman) McKay; married, May 31, 1906, to Agnes Christine Hermansen.
  Cross-reference: Edward N. Barnard — William Green
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Image source: Michigan Manual 1927
  John Clinton Porter (1871-1959) — also known as John C. Porter — of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Leon, Decatur County, Iowa, 1871. Democrat. Telegraph operator; automobile accessories business; mayor of Los Angeles, Calif., 1929-33; defeated, 1933, 1941. Christian. Petitions for his recall as mayor were filed in 1932; petitioners, led by his political adversaries on city council, charged that "the Mayor is incompetent, inefficient and unsatisfactory" and that he "has brought ridicule and insult to Los Angeles and its citizenry by his conduct." The recall, and nine candidates who sought to replace him, was defeated. Died, of a lung and heart condition, in Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif., May 27, 1959 (age about 87 years). Interment at Forest Lawn Memorial Park - Hollywood Hills, Los Angeles, Calif.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Paul Martin Pearson (1871-1938) — Born in Litchfield, Montgomery County, Ill., October 22, 1871. College professor; author; Governor of U.S. Virgin Islands, 1931-35; forced to resign in July, 1935 during a Congressional investigation of financial mismanagement in the Islands government. Suffered a stroke, and died a month later, March 26, 1938 (age 66 years, 155 days). Interment at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, Calif.
  Relatives: Father of Drew Pearson.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
Herman Methfessel Herman Methfessel (1900-1963) — of Staten Island, Richmond County, N.Y.; Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla. Born in Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., November 23, 1900. Democrat. Newspaper reporter; lawyer; member of New York state assembly from Richmond County 2nd District, 1935-38; Richmond County District Attorney, 1948-51. In September 1951, the New York State Crime Commission, investigating rackets on the Staten Island waterfront, heard testimony from Mrs. Anna Wentworth that she had seen District Attorney Methfessel in a gambling house, which implied that he was protecting vice; in response, he ordered her arrest and charged her with perjury. At the request of the Crime Commission, citing abuse of power, Gov. Thomas E. Dewey superseded him from all cases related to the investigation; in the meantime, he was defeated for re-election. In 1952, he and a subordinate were charged with official misconduct, but found not guilty. Injured in a one-car accident, and died the next day, in North Shore Hospital, Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla., July 7, 1963 (age 62 years, 226 days). Burial location unknown.
  Cross-reference: Ellsworth B. Buck
  Image source: New York Red Book 1936
Joseph R. McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (1908-1957) — also known as Joseph R. McCarthy; Joe McCarthy; "Tail-Gunner Joe" — of Appleton, Outagamie County, Wis. Born in Grand Chute, Outagamie County, Wis., November 14, 1908. Republican. Lawyer; circuit judge in Wisconsin 10th Circuit, 1940-46; served in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II; U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, 1947-57; died in office 1957; delegate to Republican National Convention from Wisconsin, 1948; speaker, 1952. Catholic. Claimed in a 1950 speech that he had a list of 205 Communists employed in the U.S. State Department; went on to conduct hearings and investigations into alleged subersive activities and Communist influence on society; with his sensationalist tactics and disregard for fairness and due process, he dominated the American political scene for a period of time, now called the McCarthy Era; public opinion turned against him when he tried to investigate the Army; in December 1953, the Senate voted 67-22 to censure him for "contemptuous conduct" and abuse of select committee privilege. Died of a liver ailment at Bethesda Naval Hospital, Bethesda, Montgomery County, Md., May 2, 1957 (age 48 years, 169 days). Interment at St. Mary's Cemetery, Appleton, Wis.
  Relatives: Son of Timothy McCarthy and Bridget (Tierney) McCarthy; married, September 29, 1953, to Jean Fraser Kerr.
  Cross-reference: L. Brent Bozell — Norman Armour — Joseph C. Grew — Robert Woods Bliss — William Phillips — Albert Cohn — Corliss Lamont — Merwin K. Hart — Charles W. Thayer — John S. Service
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books about Joseph R. McCarthy: Richard H. Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy — Arthur Herman, Joseph McCarthy : Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator — Ellen Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism — Thomas C. Reeves, The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy : A Biography
  Fiction about Joseph R. McCarthy: William F. Buckley, Jr., The Redhunter : a novel based on the life of Senator Joe McCarthy
  Image source: Wisconsin Blue Book 1954
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-1972) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in New Haven, New Haven County, Conn., November 29, 1908. Democrat. Baptist minister; U.S. Representative from New York, 1945-71 (22nd District 1945-53, 16th District 1953-63, 18th District 1963-71); delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1952, 1960, 1964; cited for contempt of court in 1966 for refusing to pay damages in a lawsuit against him; on February 28, 1967, he was expelled from the House of Representatives on charges of unbecoming conduct and misusing public funds; the Supreme Court overturned the expulsion in 1969. Baptist. African ancestry. Member, Alpha Phi Alpha; Elks. Died, of prostate cancer, in Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Dade County (now Miami-Dade County), Fla., April 4, 1972 (age 63 years, 127 days). Cremated; ashes scattered in a private or family graveyard, Bahamas.
  Relatives: Son of Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. and Mattie (Fletcher) Powell; married, March 8, 1933, to Isabel Washington; married, August 1, 1945, to Hazel Scott; married, December 15, 1960, to Yvette Marjorie Diago (Flores) Powell; father of Adam Clayton Powell IV.
  Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard (formerly part of Seventh Avenue), in Manhattan, New York, is named for him.  — The Adam Clayton Powell State Office Building (opened 1974 as the Harlem State Office Building; renamed 1983), in Manhattan, New York, is named for him.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Books by Powell,Adam Clayton,Jr.: Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
  Books about Powell,Adam Clayton,Jr.: Tisha Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: The Political Biography of an American Dilemma — Wil Haygood, King of the Cats: The Life and Times of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
  Image source: Library of Congress
  William Ewing Duffield (1922-2001) — also known as William E. Duffield — of Pennsylvania. Born in Cherry Tree, Indiana County, Pa., January 7, 1922. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; lawyer; member of Pennsylvania state senate 32nd District, 1971-78. Presbyterian. Member, Veterans of Foreign Wars; American Legion; Freemasons; Elks. Disbarred in 1975 for mishandling cases and client funds; reinstated to the bar in 1978. Convicted in 1980 on 11 federal counts of mail fraud and one count of perjury; served six months in federal prison. Disbarred again in 1994 for mishandling a murder case. Died, of cancer and strokes, in Uniontown Hospital, Uniontown, Fayette County, Pa., January 14, 2001 (age 79 years, 7 days). Interment at Sylvan Heights Cemetery, Oliver, Pa.
  S. Samuel DiFalco (1906-1978) — of Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born in Italy, July 26, 1906. Democrat. Lawyer; candidate for New York state assembly, 1935; Justice of New York Supreme Court 1st District, 1949-56; New York County Surrogate, 1957-76. Italian ancestry. Member, Tammany Hall. Indicted in May 1976, along with Justice Irving Saypol, on official misconduct charges, in connection with an alleged scheme to obtain appraisal and auction commissions for Saypol's son; the charges were later dismissed. Indicted in February 1978 for criminal contempt, in connection with his statements to a grand jury, but died before trial. Died, from a heart attack, while dining with friends at the Columbus Club, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., June 28, 1978 (age 71 years, 337 days). Interment at Gate of Heaven Cemetery, Hawthorne, N.Y.
  Charles Herbert Wilson (1917-1984) — also known as Charles H. Wilson — of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Magna, Salt Lake County, Utah, February 15, 1917. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; member of California state assembly, 1955-63; delegate to Democratic National Convention from California, 1960, 1964; U.S. Representative from California 31st District, 1963-81. Member, American Legion; Freemasons; Shriners; Elks; Kiwanis. Reprimanded by the House of Representatives in 1978 for accepting a $1,000 wedding gift from a key figure in the Koreagate scandal; censured by the House of Representatives in 1980 for financial misconduct; no criminal charges were filed. Died, of a heart attack, at Southern Maryland Hospital, Clinton, Prince George's County, Md., July 21, 1984 (age 67 years, 157 days). Interment at Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, Calif.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article
  Richard George Luxford (1917-1986) — also known as Richard G. Luxford — of Littleton, Arapahoe County, Colo. Born in Colorado, March 20, 1917. Republican. Lawyer; candidate for U.S. Representative from Colorado 1st District, 1950; in 1981, his law license was suspended by the Colorado Supreme Court, over three counts of professional misconduct involving the cashing of bad checks and failing to repay loans from clients. Member, Phi Delta Phi. Died in January, 1986 (age 68 years, 0 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of George Alfred Luxford and Maude (Robinson) Luxford.
  See also OurCampaigns candidate detail
  John T. Gregorio (1928-2013) — also known as "The Lion of Linden" — of Linden, Union County, N.J. Born in Staten Island, Richmond County, N.Y., February 6, 1928. Democrat. Florist; mayor of Linden, N.J., 1968-83, 1991-2006; defeated, 2006; shot at in his car, in March 1968; two days later, his house was firebombed; member of New Jersey state house of assembly 21st District, 1974-77; indicted in April 1975 on perjury and fraud charges, over his purchase of a vacant lot from Elizabethtown Gas Company, while conspiring to falsify documents to conceal his involvement as buyer; later charged with extorting a $25,000 kickback from a building contractor on a high school project; following jury selection, the charges were dismissed in February 1976; member of New Jersey state senate, 1978-83 (21st District 1978-81, 20th District 1982-83); indicted in September 1981 on charges of income tax evasion, concealing his interest in two "go-go bars", and for failing to enforce state alcohol laws; convicted in December 1982 of conspiracy to commit official misconduct, but found not guilty on other charges. Died, from leukemia, in Trinitas Hospital, Elizabeth, Union County, N.J., October 23, 2013 (age 85 years, 259 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Beryl W. Cohen (born c.1935) — of Brookline, Norfolk County, Mass. Born about 1935. Democrat. Lawyer; alternate delegate to Democratic National Convention from Massachusetts, 1964; member of Massachusetts state senate, 1965-70; won fame for his representation of long-term residents of a Massachusetts institution for the mentally retarded; censured in 1983 and disciplined in 1988 for attorney misconduct, over neglect of probate matters. Still living as of 2007.
  Paul Louis Douglas (b. 1927) — also known as Paul L. Douglas — of Lincoln, Lancaster County, Neb. Born in Sioux Falls, Minnehaha County, S.Dak., September 19, 1927. Lancaster County Attorney, 1960-74; Nebraska state attorney general, 1975-84. Eastern Orthodox. Impeached by the Legislature in 1984 over his conduct in office and dealings with an officer of a failed savings and loan; acquitted by the state supreme court. Convicted of perjury in December, 1984 and resigned as Attorney General, but the conviction was later overturned. Still living as of 1984.
  James Patrick Screen Jr. (1943-1994) — also known as Pat Screen — of Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, La. Born May 13, 1943. Democrat. Lawyer; mayor-president of East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, 1981-88; indicted, along with an aide, in 1987, on a felony malfeasance charge over management of a road improvement program; the charges were dismissed three days later. Catholic. Died, from a drug overdose, in a hotel room at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La., September 12, 1994 (age 51 years, 122 days). Interment at Resthaven Gardens of Memory and Mausoleum, Baton Rouge, La.
  Relatives: Son of James Patrick Screen, Sr. and Rosemary T. Screen; married to Kathleen Clare McCall.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Antonio James Manchin (1927-2003) — also known as A. James Manchin — of Farmington, Marion County, W.Va. Born in Farmington, Marion County, W.Va., April 7, 1927. Democrat. School teacher; athletic coach; member of West Virginia state house of delegates, 1949-50, 1999-2003; defeated, 1950; alternate delegate to Democratic National Convention from West Virginia, 1952; secretary of state of West Virginia, 1976-84; West Virginia state treasurer, 1985-89; resigned 1989. Catholic. Italian ancestry. Following the disclosure of losses from the State Consolidated Investment Fund and accusations of mismanagement in the State Treasurer's office, the House of Delegates, in 1989, brought impeachment charges against him, but he resigned as State Treasurer before a trial could be held. Died, following a heart attack, in Fairmont General Hospital, Fairmont, Marion County, W.Va., November 3, 2003 (age 76 years, 210 days). Interment at Odd Fellows Cemetery, Farmington, W.Va.
  Relatives: Son of Joseph Manchin, Sr. and Kathleen (Rosco) Manchin; married 1951 to Stella Machel; father of Mark Anthony Manchin; uncle of Joseph Manchin III and Timothy J. Manchin.
  Political family: Manchin family of Farmington and Fairmont, West Virginia.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Samuel Riley Pierce Jr. (1922-2000) — also known as Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.; "Silent Sam" — Born in Glen Cove, Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y., September 8, 1922. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, 1981-89. African ancestry. Member, Phi Beta Kappa; Alpha Phi Alpha. First Black partner of a major New York City law firm. First Black member of the board of directors of a Fortune 500 corporation. Only Black member of the Reagan Cabinet. An independent counsel appointed in March 1990 found "a pervasive pattern of improper and illegal behavior" within HUD, amounting to a "monumental and calculated abuse of the public trust." Pierce acknowledged that he helped create a climate in which the corruption took place, and in return for that statement, prosecutors agreed not to pursue charges against him. Died October 31, 2000 (age 78 years, 53 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also NNDB dossier
  David Ferdinand Durenberger (b. 1934) — also known as David F. Durenberger — of South St. Paul, Dakota County, Minn.; Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minn. Born in St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minn., August 19, 1934. Republican. Lawyer; executive secretary to Gov. Harold LeVander, 1967; U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1978-95. Catholic. Member, Jaycees; Knights of Columbus; Elks; Lions. Investigated in 1990 by the Senate Select Committee on Ethics over allegations that he had broken rules restricting Senators' outside income, in particular by laundering about $100,000 in speaking fees into book royalties. Denounced by unanimous vote of the Senate in July 1990 for bringing "dishonor and disrepute" to the body. Subsequently he was disbarred; in 1995 he pleaded guilty to five misdemeanor counts of misusing his congressional expense account. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Thomas W. Pearlman (born c.1928) — of Providence, Providence County, R.I. Born about 1928. Republican. Member of Rhode Island state house of representatives, 1960. Found guilty of lawyer misconduct by the Rhode Island Supreme Court, for fee-gouging and providing incompetent counsel; censured in 1993, suspended in 2004, and ordered to pay restitution in 2010. Still living as of 2010.
  Byron Low Tax Looper (1964-2013) — also known as Byron Anthony Looper — of Cookeville, Putnam County, Tenn. Born in Putnam County, Tenn., September 15, 1964. Democratic candidate for Georgia state house of representatives, 1987; Republican candidate for Tennessee state house of representatives, 1992; Republican candidate for Tennessee state senate, 1998. Changed his middle name from Anthony to Low Tax. He was indicted in March, 1998, on 14 counts of official misconduct as Putnam County Tax Assessor. On October 19, 1998, he shot and killed Tommy Burks, his opponent for a state senate seat; he was arrested soon after and charged with murder. He lost the November 1998 senate election to Burks' widow, who ran as a write-in candidate with the support of both parties. In August, 2000, he was tried for murder, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison without parole. Died, as a prison inmate, in Morgan County Correctional Complex, Wartburg, Morgan County, Tenn., June 26, 2013 (age 48 years, 284 days). Burial location unknown.
  Cross-reference: McCracken Poston
  See also Find-A-Grave memorial
  Jesse M. Norwood — of Prichard, Mobile County, Ala. Mayor of Prichard, Ala., 1996-2000. Convicted of willful neglect of duty as mayor and removed from office on March 17, 2000. Still living as of 2000.
  Bobby E. Crittendon — of Dayton, Campbell County, Ky. Mayor of Dayton, Ky., 1991-2000; appointed 1991; removed 2000; Impeached and removed from office, by unanimous vote of the city council, over misconduct including his attempts to intimidate the police chief on behalf of his son-in-law. Still living as of 2000.
  Steven Effman (b. 1950) — also known as Steve Effman — of Sunrise, Broward County, Fla. Born in New York, New York County, N.Y., October 13, 1950. Democrat. Lawyer; mayor of Sunrise, Fla., 1993-96; member of Florida state house of representatives 98th District, 1997-; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Florida, 2000. Jewish. Member, B'nai B'rith. Admitted in 2003 to inappropriate relationships with three divorce clients; suspended from the practice of law for 91 days. Still living as of 2003.
  Relatives: Married to Barbara S. Effman.
  Kwame Malik Kilpatrick (b. 1970) — also known as Kwame M. Kilpatrick — of Detroit, Wayne County, Mich. Born in Detroit, Wayne County, Mich., June 8, 1970. Democrat. School teacher; lawyer; member of Michigan state house of representatives 9th District, 1997-2001; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Michigan, 2000, 2004, 2008; mayor of Detroit, Mich., 2002-08; resigned 2008; member of Democratic National Committee from Michigan, 2004-08; charged in 2008 with obstruction of justice, perjury, and misconduct in office, in connection with his denial under oath of an affair with his chief of staff, Christine Beatty, and misleading the city council over a payment of $8.4 million to settle a whistleblower lawsuit filed by two police officers, which included a secret deal to prevent evidence of the affair from being disclosed; later charged with assaulting two police officers who were serving a subpoena; pleaded guilty to two felony counts of obstruction of justice and no contest to one assault charge; he also agreed to four months in jail, payment of $1 million in restitution, to resign as mayor, and to give up his law license and pension. Baptist. African ancestry. Member, NAACP. Still living as of 2020.
  Relatives: Son of Bernard Kilpatrick and Carolyn Cheeks Kilpatrick.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Del M. Mauhrine Brown — of Hopewell, Va. Democrat. Lawyer; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Virginia, 1996; candidate for Virginia state house of delegates 75th District, 1997; publicly admonished in June 2008 by the Virginia State Bar for lawyer misconduct, over failure to file a timely notice of appeal on behalf of three clients. Still living as of 2008.
  Sheila Ann Dixon (b. 1953) — also known as Sheila Dixon; Sheila Dixon-Smith — of Baltimore, Md. Born in Baltimore, Md., December 27, 1953. Democrat. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from Maryland, 1988, 2004, 2008 (member, Credentials Committee); mayor of Baltimore, Md., 2007-10; resigned 2010. Female. African Methodist Episcopal. African ancestry. Indicted in January 2009, on perjury theft, and misconduct charges, over secretly accepting more than $20,000 worth of gifts from developers doing business with the city, and for using gift cards intended for needy families to buy furs and other expensive items for herself; the charges were dismissed in May, but she was reindicted in July; tried in fall 2009; convicted on one count of embezzlement, and acquitted on other charges; pleaded guilty to perjury, and resigned as mayor, as part of a plea agreement. Still living as of 2010.
  Relatives: Daughter of Philip Dixon, Sr. and Winona Dixon.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Phill Kline (b. 1959) — of Overland Park, Johnson County, Kan. Born in Kansas City, Wyandotte County, Kan., December 31, 1959. Republican. Lawyer; radio show host; candidate for U.S. Representative from Kansas, 1986 (2nd District), 2000 (3rd District); member of Kansas state house of representatives 18th District, 1993-2000; Kansas state attorney general, 2003-07; defeated, 2006; Johnson County District Attorney, 2007-08. Nazarene. In October, 2011, the Kansas Supreme Court indefinitely suspended his license to practice law, citing misconduct while investigating abortion clinics, including perjury and deliberately deceiving judges, state officials, a grand jury, and the investigating panel of the Board for Discipline of Attorneys. Still living as of 2014.
  See also Wikipedia article — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Philip J. Berg (b. 1944) — also known as Phil Berg — of Lafayette Hill, Montgomery County, Pa. Born in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pa., April 14, 1944. Democrat. Lawyer; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Pennsylvania, 1992; candidate for U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, 2000; in 2001, he issued a formal demand that U.S. Supreme Court Justices Sandra Day O'Connor, Clarence Thomas, and Antonin Scalia be disbarred for their participation in the Bush v. Gore decision; in 2004, he filed a federal lawsuit under the Racketeer Influencd and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act, accusing President George W. Bush, and 155 other defendants, of complicity in the 9/11 terrorist attacks (the case was dismissed); in 2008, he sued in federal court, contending that Barack Obama was born in Kenya and not eligible to be President (the case was dismissed); sued by clients and disciplined by Pennsylvania legal authorities for malpractice, mostly due to neglect of cases entrusted to him, missing legal deadlines, and failure to keep clients informed; his law license was suspended for two years in 2013, and he ultimately agreed to be disbarred in 2015. Still living as of 2018.
  See also Wikipedia article — Encyclopedia of American Loons
"Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
The Political Graveyard

The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 320,919 politicians, living and dead.
  The coverage of this site includes (1) the President, Vice President, members of Congress, elected state and territorial officeholders in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories; and the chief elected official, typically the mayor, of qualifying municipalities; (2) candidates at election, including primaries, for any of the above; (3) all federal judges and all state appellate judges; (4) certain federal officials, including the federal cabinet, diplomatic chiefs of mission, consuls, U.S. district attorneys, collectors of customs and internal revenue, members of major federal commissions; and political appointee (pre-1969) postmasters of qualifying communities; (5) state and national political party officials, including delegates, alternate delegates, and other participants in national party nominating conventions; (6) Americans who served as "honorary" consuls for other nations before 1950. Note: municipalities or communities "qualify", for Political Graveyard purposes, if they have at least half a million person-years of history, inclusive of predecessor, successor, and merged entities.  
  The listings are incomplete; development of the database is a continually ongoing project.  
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Copyright notices: (1) Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist v. Rural Telephone. (2) Politician portraits displayed on this site are 70-pixel-wide monochrome thumbnail images, which I believe to constitute fair use under applicable copyright law. Where possible, each image is linked to its online source. However, requests from owners of copyrighted images to delete them from this site are honored. (3) Original material, programming, selection and arrangement are © 1996-2023 Lawrence Kestenbaum. (4) This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with attribution, under a Creative Commons License.
Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure and content. — The mailing address is The Political Graveyard, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — This site is hosted by HDL. — The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996; the last full revision was done on March 8, 2023.

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