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The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History
Politicians in Trouble or Disgrace

Politicians in Trouble: 1990 to 1999

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in approximate chronological order

  Arch Alfred Moore, Jr. (1923-2015) — also known as Arch A. Moore, Jr. — of Moundsville, Marshall County, W.Va.; Glen Dale, Marshall County, W.Va. Born in Moundsville, Marshall County, W.Va., April 16, 1923. Republican. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; lawyer; member of West Virginia state house of delegates from Marshall County, 1953-54; U.S. Representative from West Virginia 1st District, 1957-69; defeated, 1954; alternate delegate to Republican National Convention from West Virginia, 1960, 1972; member of Republican National Committee from West Virginia, 1963-73; Governor of West Virginia, 1969-77, 1985-89; defeated, 1980, 1988; candidate for U.S. Senator from West Virginia, 1978. Methodist. Member, American Bar Association; American Legion; Forty and Eight; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Moose; Eagles; Elks; Rotary; Phi Delta Phi; Beta Theta Pi. Pleaded guilty in 1990 to five felonies, over findings that he had accepted illegal contributions to his 1984 and 1988 election campaigns, had extorted over $500,000 from a coal company, and obstructed the investigation; served two years and eight months in prison. Died in Charleston, Kanawha County, W.Va., January 7, 2015 (age 91 years, 266 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Arch A. Moore and Genevieve (Jones) Moore; married, August 11, 1949, to Shelley S. Riley; father of Shelley Moore Capito (1953-).
  Cross-reference: Wade H. Ballard III
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Barney Frank (b. 1940) — of Newton, Middlesex County, Mass. Born in Bayonne, Hudson County, N.J., March 31, 1940. Democrat. Lawyer; member of Massachusetts state house of representatives, 1973-80; U.S. Representative from Massachusetts 4th District, 1981-; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Massachusetts, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008. Jewish. Gay. Admitted in 1990 to having paid Stephen L. Gobie, a male prostitute, for sex, subsequently hiring Gobie as his personal assistant, and getting 33 parking tickets dismissed for him; Gobie also used the congressman's apartment for prostitution. A move to expel Frank from the House of Representatives failed on a 38 to 390 vote; a motion to censure him failed 141-287; finally, the House voted to reprimand him by a vote of 408 to 18. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Books about Barney Frank: Stuart Weisberg, Barney Frank: The Story of America's Only Left-Handed, Gay, Jewish Congressman — Peter Bollen, Frank Talk: The Wit and Wisdom of Barney Frank
  Samuel Riley Pierce, Jr. (1922-2000) — also known as Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.; "Silent Sam" — Born in Glen Cove, Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y., September 8, 1922. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, 1981-89. African ancestry. Member, Phi Beta Kappa; Alpha Phi Alpha. First Black partner of a major New York City law firm. First Black member of the board of directors of a Fortune 500 corporation. Only Black member of the Reagan Cabinet. An independent counsel appointed in March 1990 found "a pervasive pattern of improper and illegal behavior" within HUD, amounting to a "monumental and calculated abuse of the public trust." Pierce acknowledged that he helped create a climate in which the corruption took place, and in return for that statement, prosecutors agreed not to pursue charges against him. Died October 31, 2000 (age 78 years, 53 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also NNDB dossier
  David Ferdinand Durenberger (b. 1934) — also known as David F. Durenberger — of South St. Paul, Dakota County, Minn.; Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minn. Born in St. Cloud, Stearns County, Minn., August 19, 1934. Republican. Lawyer; executive secretary to Gov. Harold LeVander, 1967; U.S. Senator from Minnesota, 1978-95. Catholic. Member, Jaycees; Knights of Columbus; Elks; Lions. Investigated in 1990 by the Senate Select Committee on Ethics over allegations that he had broken rules restricting Senators' outside income, in particular by laundering about $100,000 in speaking fees into book royalties. Denounced by unanimous vote of the Senate in July 1990 for bringing "dishonor and disrepute" to the body. Subsequently he was disbarred; in 1995 he pleaded guilty to five misdemeanor counts of misusing his congressional expense account. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Marion S. Barry, Jr. (1936-2014) — also known as Marion Barry — of Washington, D.C. Born in Itta Bena, Leflore County, Miss., March 6, 1936. Democrat. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from District of Columbia, 1972 (alternate), 1980, 1996; mayor of Washington, D.C., 1979-91, 1995-99; convicted in 1990 of misdemeanor cocaine possession after being caught on videotape smoking crack cocaine; sentenced to six months in prison. African ancestry. Member, Alpha Phi Alpha. Died in Washington, D.C., November 23, 2014 (age 78 years, 262 days). Interment at Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D.C.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Critical books about Marion Barry: Jonetta Rose Barras, The Last of the Black Emperors : The Hollow Comeback of Marion Barry in a New Age of Black Leaders
  Lafayette Christopher Thomas (1926-2000) — also known as Fate C. Thomas — of Nashville, Davidson County, Tenn. Born in Nashville, Davidson County, Tenn., September 23, 1926. Democrat. Candidate for Tennessee state house of representatives, 1954; Davidson County Sheriff, 1972-90. Catholic. Indicted in federal court in 1990 on 54 counts of abusing his power as sheriff; pleaded guilty to theft and mail fraud; sentenced to five years in prison; released in 1994. Died, following heart bypass surgery, in Nashville, Davidson County, Tenn., July 25, 2000 (age 73 years, 306 days). Interment at Calvary Cemetery, Nashville, Tenn.
  Jack Kevorkian (1928-2011) — also known as "Dr. Death" — Born in Pontiac, Oakland County, Mich., May 26, 1928. Physician; euthanasia advocate whose campaign of assisted suicides of terminally ill patients in 1989-99 brought him national publicity; his medical license was revoked in 1990; he faced numerous murder charges starting in 1993; acquitted by juries several times; convicted in 1999 and sentenced to 10 to 25 years in prison; released in 2007; Independent candidate for U.S. Representative from Michigan 9th District, 2008. Atheist. Armenian ancestry. Died, from kidney and heart problems, in Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Oakland County, Mich., June 3, 2011 (age 83 years, 8 days). Interment at White Chapel Memorial Park Cemetery, Troy, Mich.
  Relatives: Son of Levon Kevorkian.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile
  Frederick Waldron Phelps (b. 1929) — also known as Fred Phelps — of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kan. Born in Meridian, Lauderdale County, Miss., November 13, 1929. Democrat. Lawyer; disbarred by the state of Kansas in 1979 over harassment of a court reporter and perjury during the proceedings; in 1985, nine Federal judges filed a disciplinary complaint against him over alleged false accusations, which led to an agreement that he cease law practice in Federal court; pastor of the Westboro Baptist Church, which is widely reviled for its extreme hatred of homosexuals, and its tactics, such as picketing at military funerals; candidate in primary for Governor of Kansas, 1990, 1994, 1998; candidate in primary for U.S. Senator from Kansas, 1992; candidate for mayor of Topeka, Kan., 1993, 1997. Baptist. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Step-son of Olive (Briggs) Phelps (1899-1985); son of Frederick Wade Phelps (1893-1977) and Catherine Idalette (Johnson) Phelps (c.1907-1935); married, May 15, 1952, to Margie Marie Simms.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Arlan Ingehart Stangeland (1930-2013) — also known as Arlan Stangeland — of Barnesville, Clay County, Minn. Born in Fargo, Cass County, N.Dak., February 8, 1930. Republican. Member of Minnesota state house of representatives, 1966-74 (District 56-B 1966-72, District 9-B 1973-74); U.S. Representative from Minnesota 7th District, 1977-91; defeated (Independent Republican), 1990; news media reported in January 1990 that he had made hundreds of phone calls on his House phone credit card, to or from the home of a female lobbyist; he denied having an extramarital affair, but the scandal contributed to his defeat in November 1990. Lutheran. Member, Delta Sigma Phi. Died in Otter Tail County, Minn., July 2, 2013 (age 83 years, 144 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Ingehart Stangeland and Pearle (Olson) Stangeland; married, June 24, 1950, to Virginia Grace Trowbridge.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — NNDB dossier
  Ricardo Jerome Bordallo (1927-1990) — also known as Ricardo J. Bordallo; Ricky Bordallo — of Agana (now Hagatna), Guam. Born in Agana (now Hagatna), Guam, December 11, 1927. Democrat. Restaurant owner; automobile dealer; member of Guam legislature, 1956-70; Guam Democratic Party chair, 1960-63, 1971-73; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Guam, 1964; Governor of Guam, 1975-78, 1983-86; defeated, 1970; Convicted in 1987 on corruption charges, including bribery, obstruction of justice, and witness tampering; sentenced to nine years in prison and fined; some of the charges were overturned on appeal in 1988; resentenced to four years in prison in December, 1989. Catholic. Chamorro ancestry. Just before he was to report to prison, he chained himself to a statue of Chief Quipuha, in a busy traffic circle at rush hour; wrapped in a Guam flag and wearing a sign saying "I regret I have but one life to give for my island," he shot and killed himself, in Agana (now Hagatna), Guam, February 1, 1990 (age 62 years, 52 days). Interment at Pigo Catholic Cemetery, Hagatna, Guam.
  Relatives: Son of Baltazar Jeronimo 'B. J.' Bordallo (1900-1984) and Josefina Torres (Pangelinan) Bordallo (1906-1945); brother of Paul Joseph Bordallo (1930-2007); married 1953 to Madeleine Mary Zeien.
  Political family: Bordallo family of Minnesota.
  See also Wikipedia article — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Robert Jerry Dryfoos (1942-2006) — also known as Robert J. Dryfoos — of Forest Hills, Queens, Queens County, N.Y.; Manhattan, New York County, N.Y. Born August 11, 1942. Democrat. Lawyer; delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1972, 1980, 1988; chief counsel for New York Lt. Gov. Mary Ann Krupsak, 1975; member, New York City Council, 1980-91; retired from office while under investigation over alleged campaign finance and federal tax violations, but no charges were filed; lobbyist. Jewish. Member, Americans for Democratic Action; American Jewish Committee. Died, from complications of a head injury, in New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, Manhattan, New York County, N.Y., March 2, 2006 (age 63 years, 203 days). Burial location unknown.
  Robert Garcia (1933-2017) — of Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y.; Washington, D.C. Born in Bronx, Bronx County, N.Y., January 9, 1933. Served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; computer engineer; member of New York state assembly, 1966-67 (83rd District 1966, 77th District 1967); resigned 1967; member of New York state senate 30th District, 1967-78; U.S. Representative from New York, 1978-90 (21st District 1978-83, 18th District 1983-90); resigned 1990; delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1980, 1984, 1988; indicted in 1988, along with his wife, on federal bribery and extortion charges; convicted in October 1989 and sentenced to three years in prison (served 104 days); the conviction was reversed on appeal; retried and again convicted in 1991; the second conviction was also overturned, and prosecutors dropped the case. Puerto Rican ancestry. Died in San Juan, San Juan Municipio, Puerto Rico, January 25, 2017 (age 84 years, 16 days). Interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Tom Metzger — of California; Warsaw, Kosciusko County, Ind. Democratic candidate for U.S. Representative from California 43rd District, 1980; candidate in Democratic primary for U.S. Senator from California, 1982; convicted in 1991 of burning a cross (as a form of hate speech or intimidation) and sentenced to prison; in 1992, he was arrested in Canada for violating immigration laws. Member, John Birch Society; Ku Klux Klan. Still living as of 2012.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Alan MacGregor Cranston (1914-2000) — also known as Alan Cranston — of Los Altos Hills, Santa Clara County, Calif.; Sacramento, Sacramento County, Calif.; Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, Calif., June 19, 1914. Democrat. Journalist; served in the U.S. Army during World War II; real estate business; delegate to Democratic National Convention from California, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1988 (speaker); California state controller, 1959-67; U.S. Senator from California, 1969-93; defeated in primary, 1964; candidate for Democratic nomination for President, 1984. Protestant. Member, United World Federalists. Sued by Adolf Hitler over his unexpurgated translation into English of Mein Kampf. Reprimanded by the Senate in 1991 over his dealings with Lincoln Savings and Loan president Charles Keating. Died in Los Altos, Santa Clara County, Calif., December 31, 2000 (age 86 years, 195 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of William Cranston and Carol (Dixon) Cranston; married, November 6, 1940, to Geneva McMath (divorced 1951); married 1978 to Norma Weintraub.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile
  Marvin Lee Worthington (1940-2000) — also known as Marvin L. Worthington; Pete Worthington — of Washington, Mason County, Ky. Born December 5, 1940. Engineer; farmer; member of Kentucky state house of representatives, 1978-2000; died in office 2000. Baptist. Member, Freemasons; Farm Bureau; Odd Fellows. Charged with drunken driving and speeding in Fayette County, Ky., in 1992; pleaded guilty to a reduced charge of reckless driving. Driving on U.S. Highway 68 while intoxicated, he crossed the center line and collided with another car; both he and the other driver (Sherri Commodore Chambers) were killed, near Mayslick, Mason County, Ky., October 12, 2000 (age 59 years, 312 days). Burial location unknown.
  Jerry Cosentino (c.1932-1997) — of Palos Heights, Cook County, Ill. Born about 1932. Democrat. Illinois state treasurer, 1979-83, 1987-91; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Illinois, 1980; candidate for secretary of state of Illinois, 1982, 1990. Pleaded guilty to bank fraud in April 1992; fined $5,000, and sentenced to nine months home confinement. Died of a heart attack, in Naples, Collier County, Fla., April 3, 1997 (age about 65 years). Burial location unknown.
  Caspar Willard Weinberger (1917-2006) — also known as Caspar W. Weinberger; Cap Weinberger; "Cap the Knife" — of San Francisco, Calif.; Hillsborough, San Mateo County, Calif. Born in San Francisco, Calif., August 18, 1917. Republican. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; member of California state assembly, 1953-56; delegate to Republican National Convention from California, 1956 (alternate), 1960 (member, Committee on Rules and Order of Business); California Republican state chair, 1964; member, Federal Trade Commission, 1969-70; chair, Federal Trade Commission, 1970; chair, Federal Trade Commission; director, U.S. Office of Management and Budget; U.S. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, 1973-75; U.S. Secretary of Defense, 1981-87. Episcopalian. Jewish ancestry. Member, Phi Beta Kappa. Received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987. To forestall any prosecution for alleged misdeeds in connection with the Iran-Contra affair, he was pardoned by President George Bush in 1992. Died, of kidney ailments and pneumonia, in Eastern Maine Medical Center, Bangor, Penobscot County, Maine, March 28, 2006 (age 88 years, 222 days). Interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.
  Relatives: Step-son of Cerise (Carpenter) Weinberger; son of Herman Weinberger; married, August 12, 1942, to Jane Dalton.
  Epitaph: "Peace Through Strength"
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — Find-A-Grave memorial
  Books by Caspar Weinberger: Fighting for Peace: Seven Critical Years in the Pentagon (1990) — In the Arena : A Memoir of the 20th Century, with Gretchen Roberts — Home of the Brave, with Wynton C. Hall — The Next War, with Peter Schweizer
  Fiction by Caspar Weinberger: Chain of Command, with Peter Schweizer
  Gerald McCann (born c.1950) — of Jersey City, Hudson County, N.J. Born in Jersey City, Hudson County, N.J., about 1950. Democrat. Mayor of Jersey City, N.J., 1981-85, 1989-92; defeated, 1985; removed 1992; chair of Hudson County Democratic Party, 1984-85. Catholic. Convicted in 1992 on federal charges of fraud and tax evasion, and sentenced to federal prison. Still living as of 2003.
  Brockman Adams (1927-2004) — also known as Brock Adams — of Seattle, King County, Wash.; Stevensville, Queen Anne's County, Md. Born in Atlanta, Fulton County, Ga., January 13, 1927. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II; lawyer; U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Washington, 1961-64; U.S. Representative from Washington 7th District, 1965-77; U.S. Secretary of Transportation, 1977-79; resigned 1979; U.S. Senator from Washington, 1987-93; in 1992, he was accused by eight women of sexual misconduct including sexual harassment and rape; he denied the allegations, and no charges were ever brought, but the scandal ended his political career. Episcopalian. Member, American Bar Association; Phi Beta Kappa; Federal Bar Association. Died, of Parkinson's disease, in Stevensville, Queen Anne's County, Md., September 10, 2004 (age 77 years, 241 days). Interment at Broad Creek Cemetery, Stevensville, Md.
  Relatives: Son of Charles Leslie Adams (born 1896) and Vera Eleanor (Beemer) Adams (born 1903); married, August 16, 1952, to Mary Elizabeth Scott.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Find-A-Grave memorial — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  John Quinn Brisben (1934-2012) — also known as J. Quinn Brisben — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill. Born in Enid, Garfield County, Okla., September 6, 1934. Socialist. School teacher; poet; candidate for Vice President of the United States, 1976; briefly jailed in Florida as a result of his participation in a disability rights demonstration in Orlando, Fla., 1992; candidate for President of the United States, 1992. Member, American Federation of Teachers. Died in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., April 17, 2012 (age 77 years, 224 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also Wikipedia article
  Lawrence Jack Smith (b. 1941) — also known as Lawrence J. Smith; Larry Smith — of Hollywood, Broward County, Fla. Born in Brooklyn, Kings County, N.Y., April 25, 1941. Democrat. Lawyer; member of Florida state house of representatives, 1979-82; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Florida, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 2004; U.S. Representative from Florida 16th District, 1983-93. Sentenced in 1993 to three months in federal prison for tax evasion. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
Nicholas Mavroules Nicholas James Mavroules (1929-2003) — also known as Nicholas Mavroules — of Peabody, Essex County, Mass. Born in Peabody, Essex County, Mass., November 1, 1929. Democrat. Mayor of Peabody, Mass., 1967-78; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Massachusetts, 1976; U.S. Representative from Massachusetts 6th District, 1979-93; defeated, 1992. Greek Orthodox. Greek ancestry. Member, Kiwanis; Rotary. Pleaded guilty in 1993 to charges of tax fraud and accepting gratuities while in office; sentenced to prison. Died in Salem, Essex County, Mass., December 25, 2003 (age 74 years, 54 days). Interment at Cedar Grove Cemetery, Peabody, Mass.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Image source: Public Officers of Massachusetts, 1979-80
  Sol Wachtler — of Manhasset, Nassau County, Long Island, N.Y. Judge of New York Court of Appeals, 1972; chief judge of New York Court of Appeals, 1985-93. In 1993, he was sentenced to 15 months in prison for extortion in connection with his harassment of an ex-lover. Still living as of 1993.
  Books about Sol Wachtler: John M. Caher, King of the Mountain : The Rise, Fall, and Redemption of Chief Judge Sol Wachtler
  Fred B. Roti (1920-1999) — of Illinois. Born in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., December 18, 1920. Member of Illinois state senate, 1951-56. Convicted of extortion and racketeering, 1993; served four years in federal prison. Died, of cancer, in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., September 20, 1999 (age 78 years, 276 days). Interment at Mt. Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, Ill.
  David Jaye (b. 1958) — also known as Dave Jaye — of Washington, Macomb County, Mich. Born in 1958. Republican. Member of Michigan state house of representatives, 1989-93 (26th District 1989-92, 32nd District 1993); defeated, 1986; member of Michigan state senate 12th District; elected 1998; defeated in primary, 2001. Convicted of drunk driving in 1993, and sentenced to 10 days in jail; pleaded guilty to drunk driving in June 2000, and sentenced to 45 days in jail. Expelled from the Michigan state senate. Still living as of 2001.
  William L. Webster (b. 1953) — of Jasper County, Mo. Born September 17, 1953. Republican. Lawyer; member of Missouri state house of representatives, 1981-84; Missouri state attorney general, 1985-93; candidate for Governor of Missouri, 1992. Member, American Bar Association. Pleaded guilty in 1993 to embezzlement and conspiracy, and sentenced to two years in prison. Still living as of 1993.
  Relatives: Son of Richard Melton Webster (1922-1990).
  See also Wikipedia article
  Harold Guy Hunt (1933-2009) — also known as Guy Hunt — of Holly Pond, Cullman County, Ala. Born in Holly Pond, Cullman County, Ala., June 17, 1933. Republican. Served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; Baptist minister; candidate for Alabama state senate, 1962; probate judge in Alabama, 1964-76; Governor of Alabama, 1987-93; defeated in primary, 1978. Baptist. Convicted in 1993 of misusing campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts, and removed from office as Governor. Died January 30, 2009 (age 75 years, 227 days). Burial location unknown.
  See also NNDB dossier
  Albert Garza Bustamante (b. 1935) — also known as Albert G. Bustamante — of Laredo, Webb County, Tex. Born in Asherton, Dimmit County, Tex., April 8, 1935. Democrat. School teacher; Bexar County Commissioner, 1973-78; Bexar County Judge, 1979-84; U.S. Representative from Texas 23rd District, 1985-93; defeated, 1992. Catholic. Hispanic ancestry. Convicted in 1993 on racketeering and bribery charges, and sentenced to prison. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Married to Rebecca Pounders.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  Tom Joe Barrow (b. 1949) — also known as Tom Barrow — of Detroit, Wayne County, Mich. Born, in Kirwood Hospital, Detroit, Wayne County, Mich., January 12, 1949. Accountant; candidate for mayor of Detroit, Mich., 1985 (primary), 1989, 2009, 2013 (primary); convicted of on federal charges of tax evasion in 1993; served 18 months in prison; his contention that he was wrongfully convicted was later supported by a ruling of the U.S. Tax Court in 2008. African ancestry. Still living as of 2013.
  Relatives: Son of Albert Barrow and Mattie Barrow.
  Thomas W. Pearlman (born c.1928) — of Providence, Providence County, R.I. Born about 1928. Republican. Member of Rhode Island state house of representatives, 1960. Found guilty of lawyer misconduct by the Rhode Island Supreme Court, for fee-gouging and providing incompetent counsel; censured in 1993, suspended in 2004, and ordered to pay restitution in 2010. Still living as of 2010.
  Joseph Paul Kolter (b. 1926) — also known as Joseph P. Kolter; Joe Kolter — of New Brighton, Beaver County, Pa. Born in McDonald, Trumbull County, Ohio, September 3, 1926. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives 14th District, 1969-82; U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania 4th District, 1983-93; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Pennsylvania, 1984. Member, Eagles; American Legion; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Elks; Sons of Italy. Indicted in 1994 by a Federal grand jury on five felony charges of embezzlement at the U.S. House post office; pleaded guilty in May 1996. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  Daniel David Rostenkowski (1928-2010) — also known as Dan Rostenkowski; "Rosty"; "Chicago Powerhouse" — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill. Born in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., January 2, 1928. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; member of Illinois state house of representatives, 1953-55; member of Illinois state senate, 1955-59; U.S. Representative from Illinois, 1959-95 (8th District 1959-93, 5th District 1993-95); defeated, 1994; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Illinois, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1976, 1984 (delegation chair), 1988, 1992. Catholic. Member, Veterans of Foreign Wars; Knights of Columbus; Kiwanis; Moose. Indicted in 1994 on 17 felony charges; pleaded guilty in April 1996 to two counts of misuse of public funds; sentenced to seventeen months in federal prison; released in 1997. Died August 11, 2010 (age 82 years, 221 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Joseph P. Rostenkowski (1896?-?).
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  William Ewing Duffield (1922-2001) — also known as William E. Duffield — of Pennsylvania. Born in Cherry Tree, Indiana County, Pa., January 7, 1922. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; lawyer; member of Pennsylvania state senate 32nd District, 1971-78. Presbyterian. Member, Veterans of Foreign Wars; American Legion; Freemasons; Elks. Disbarred in 1975 for mishandling cases and client funds; reinstated to the bar in 1978. Convicted in 1980 on 11 federal counts of mail fraud and one count of perjury; served six months in federal prison. Disbarred again in 1994 for mishandling a murder case. Died, of cancer and strokes, in Uniontown Hospital, Uniontown, Fayette County, Pa., January 14, 2001 (age 79 years, 7 days). Interment at Sylvan Heights Cemetery, Oliver, Pa.
  Carl Christopher Perkins (b. 1954) — also known as Carl C. Perkins; Chris Perkins — of Leburn, Knott County, Ky. Born in Washington, D.C., August 6, 1954. Democrat. Member of Kentucky state house of representatives, 1981-84; U.S. Representative from Kentucky 7th District, 1985-93; minister. Baptist; later Presbyterian. Pleaded guilty in 1994 to bank fraud in connection with the House banking scandal; he wrote overdrafts totaling about $300,000 (covered by the House bank) and made false statements to obtain loans from commercial banks; also pleaded guilty to charges of filing false statements with the Federal Election Commission and false financial disclosure reports. Sentenced to 21 months in prison. In March 2000, pleaded guilty to criminal contempt of court for lying to a federal probation officer about his income. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Son of Carl Dewey Perkins (1912-1984).
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Carroll Hubbard, Jr. (b. 1937) — of Mayfield, Graves County, Ky. Born in Murray, Calloway County, Ky., July 7, 1937. Democrat. Alternate delegate to Democratic National Convention from Kentucky, 1960; member of Kentucky state senate, 1968-75; U.S. Representative from Kentucky 1st District, 1975-93; candidate in primary for Governor of Kentucky, 1979. Baptist. Pleaded guilty in 1994 to conspiring to defraud the Federal Elections Commission, and to theft of government property; sentenced to three years in prison. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  Webster Lee Hubbell (born c.1949) — also known as Webster L. Hubbell — of Little Rock, Pulaski County, Ark. Born about 1949. Lawyer; mayor of Little Rock, Ark., 1979-81; resigned 1981; chief justice of Arkansas state supreme court, 1983. Pleaded guilty in December 1994 to federal mail fraud and tax evasion charges connection with his handling of billing at the Rose Law Firm; sentenced in 1995 to 21 months imprisonment; indicted in 1998 on additional federal tax evasion and conspiracy charges; pleaded guilty to one charge pending judicial review; following a Supreme Court ruling in his favor, the indictment was dismissed in October, 2000. Still living as of 2003.
  Dave Brown (1948-1998) — of Montana. Born in Pompeys Pillar, Yellowstone County, Mont., November 20, 1948. Member of Montana state house of representatives, 1981-93. Pleaded guilty in 1994 to five counts of failing to file federal income tax returns. Died in University Hospital, Madison, Dane County, Wis., October 23, 1998 (age 49 years, 337 days). Interment at Mountain View Cemetery, Butte, Mont.
  David Lee Walters (b. 1951) — also known as David Walters — of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, Okla. Born in Canute, Washita County, Okla., November 20, 1951. Democrat. Governor of Oklahoma, 1991-95; candidate for U.S. Senator from Oklahoma, 2002; member, Rules Committee, Democratic National Convention, 2008. While Governor, pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor election law violation. Still living as of 2014.
  See also NNDB dossier
  Judith K. Moriarty (b. 1942) — of Pettis County, Mo. Born February 2, 1942. Democrat. Secretary of state of Missouri, 1993-94; removed 1994. Female. Impeached and removed from office, 1994. Still living as of 1994.
  Sam Solon (1931-2001) — also known as "Senator Sam" — of Duluth, St. Louis County, Minn. Born in Duluth, St. Louis County, Minn., June 25, 1931. Democrat. School teacher; member of Minnesota state house of representatives, 1971-72; member of Minnesota state senate, 1973-2001; died in office 2001. Eastern Orthodox. Greek ancestry. Pleaded guilty in 1995 to telecommunications fraud for letting his ex-wife make $2,430 in calls on his State Senate telephone line; reprimanded by the Senate in 1996. Died, of liver cancer, in St. Mary's Medical Center, Duluth, St. Louis County, Minn., December 28, 2001 (age 70 years, 186 days). Burial location unknown.
  The Solon Campus Center (built 1995, named 2001), at the University of Minnesota Duluth, is named for him.
  David Nelson (b. 1962) — of Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah. Born, in a hospital at Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, Utah, April 7, 1962. Democrat. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from Utah, 1996, 2000. Gay. Member, American Civil Liberties Union; National Rifle Association. Convicted on a misdemeanor act of civil disobedience, 1995 Recipient of Democratic National Committee's Lawrence O'Brien Achievement Award, 1998. Still living as of 2004.
  Relatives: Third great-grandnephew of George Quayle Cannon (1827-1901); first cousin four times removed of Frank Jenne Cannon.
  Political family: Cannon family of Salt Lake City, Utah.
  Donald Edgar Lukens (1931-2010) — also known as Donald E. Lukens; Buz Lukens — of Middletown, Butler County, Ohio. Born in Harveysburg, Warren County, Ohio, February 11, 1931. Republican. U.S. Representative from Ohio, 1967-71, 1987-90 (24th District 1967-71, 8th District 1987-90); member of Ohio state senate, 1975. Member, Sertoma; Farm Bureau; Delta Chi; Order of Ahepa; Freemasons; Shriners; Kiwanis; Toastmasters. Convicted in 1989 on a misdemeanor charge of contributing to the delinquency of a minor, by having sex with a 16 year old girl; sentenced to 30 days in jail. Indicted in February 1995 on five counts of bribery and conspiracy; a jury in October 1995 found him not guilty on three counts but was unable to reach a verdict on the other two; a mistrial was declared. Reindicted in March 1996; tried and convicted. Died May 22, 2010 (age 79 years, 100 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of William Arthur Lukens and Edith (Greene) Lukens.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — NNDB dossier
  Robert William Packwood (b. 1932) — also known as Bob Packwood — of Portland, Multnomah County, Ore.; Lake Oswego, Clackamas County, Ore. Born in Portland, Multnomah County, Ore., September 11, 1932. Republican. Lawyer; chair of Multnomah County Republican Party, 1960-62; member of Oregon state house of representatives, 1963-68; U.S. Senator from Oregon, 1969-95; resigned 1995; delegate to Republican National Convention from Oregon, 1972. Unitarian. Member, American Bar Association; Jaycees; Beta Theta Pi. Resigned from the U.S. Senate in 1995, after the Select Committee on Ethics recommended his expulson for sexual misconduct, attempting to obstruct the committee's investigation, and using his position to solicit employment for his wife. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Son of Frederick William Packwood (1895-1965) and Gladys (Taft) Packwood (1901-1988); married, November 25, 1964, to Georgie Ann Oberteuffer; great-grandson of William Henderson Packwood; third cousin thrice removed of Augustus Brandegee; fourth cousin once removed of Otis Larry Packwood (1927-2008).
  Political family: Wolcott-Packwood-Griswold family of Connecticut (subset of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  Doris Allen (1936-1999) — of California. Born in Kansas City, Jackson County, Mo., May 26, 1936. Republican. Member of California state assembly, 1982-95; Speaker of the California State Assembly, 1995; candidate for California state senate, 1990. Female. Was recalled from office in 1995 after becoming Speaker with mainly Democratic support. Died, of stomach and colon cancer, at a hospice in Colorado Springs, El Paso County, Colo., September 22, 1999 (age 63 years, 119 days). Interment somewhere in Cripple Creek, Colo.
  Mary Rose Oakar (b. 1940) — of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio; Washington, D.C. Born in Ohio, March 5, 1940. Democrat. U.S. Representative from Ohio 20th District, 1977-93; defeated, 1992; member, Rules Committee, Democratic National Convention, 2008. Female. She and two nephews were indicted in 1995 over a scheme to evade campaign finance limits and put money into her campaign under the names of fake donors; she was also charged with obtaining money through bad checks on the House bank; pleaded not guilty to seven felonies, and challenged the validity of the charges; in 1998, pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor campaign finance violations. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  William James McCuen (c.1943-2000) — also known as Bill McCuen — of Hot Springs, Garland County, Ark.; Heber Springs, Cleburne County, Ark. Born in Fort Smith, Sebastian County, Ark., about 1943. Democrat. School teacher; Arkansas land commissioner, 1981-85; secretary of state of Arkansas, 1985-94; defeated in primary, 1994; candidate for U.S. Representative from Arkansas 4th District, 1992. After leaving office as Secretary of State, he admitted accepting kickbacks from two supporters he gave jobs, and not paying taxes on the money. He also admitted to conspiring with a political consultant to split $53,560 embezzled from the state in a sham transaction. He was indicted on corruption charges in 1995. On January 5, 1996, he pleaded guilty to felony counts of tax evasion and accepting a kickback; he pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor count of trading in public office. Sentenced to 17 years in prison, and fined. Released on parole (due to illness) in February 1999. Died of colon cancer and a stroke, in Heber Springs, Cleburne County, Ark., September 9, 2000 (age about 57 years). Interment somewhere in Van Buren, Ark.
  Henry Gabriel Cisneros (b. 1947) — also known as Henry G. Cisneros — of San Antonio, Bexar County, Tex. Born in San Antonio, Bexar County, Tex., June 11, 1947. Mayor of San Antonio, Tex., 1981-89; U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, 1993-97. Hispanic ancestry. In 1995, an independent counsel was appointed to investigate allegations that he had made false statements to the FBI about payments he made to his mistress; indicted in 1997 on 18 counts of conspiracy, making false statements, and obstruction of justice; pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor count of lying to the FBI, and was fined $10,000; pardoned in 2001 by President Bill Clinton. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Son of George Cisneros and Elvira Cisneros; married 1969 to Mary Alice Perez (1949?-).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile
  Books by Henry Cisneros: Mayor : An Inside View of San Antonio Politics, 1981-1995 (1997)
  Books about Henry Cisneros: Elizabeth Coonrod Martinez, Henry Cisneros : Mexican-American Leader (for young readers)
  Melvin Jay Reynolds (b. 1952) — also known as Mel Reynolds — of Illinois. Born in Mound Bayou, Bolivar County, Miss., January 8, 1952. Democrat. University professor; U.S. Representative from Illinois 2nd District, 1993-95; defeated in primary, 1988, 1990; resigned 1995. Baptist. African ancestry. Convicted in 1995 on sexual misconduct and obstruction of justice charges and sentenced to five years in prison. Convicted in federal court in 1997 of 15 counts of bank fraud, wire fraud, and lying to the Federal Election Commission; sentenced to 78 more months in prison. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  Walter Edward Fauntroy (b. 1933) — also known as Walter E. Fauntroy — of Washington, D.C. Born in Washington, D.C., February 6, 1933. Democrat. Baptist minister; Delegate to U.S. Congress from the District of Columbia, 1971-91; candidate for Democratic nomination for President, 1972; delegate to Democratic National Convention from District of Columbia, 1972, 1980; arrested during an anti-apartheid sit-in at the South African Embassy in Washington, 1984; candidate in primary for mayor of Washington, D.C., 1990. Baptist. African ancestry. Member, Kappa Alpha Psi. Charged in federal court on March 22, 1995 with making false statements on financial disclosure forms, including a claimed donation of almost $24,000 to the New Bethel Baptist Church where he served as pastor, to make it appear that he had complied with House rules limiting outside income, and that he had failed to disclose a June 1988 loan of $24,200. Pleaded guilty to one felony count, and sentenced to probation. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Matthew Eduardo Gonzalez (b. 1965) — also known as Matt Gonzalez — of San Francisco, Calif. Born in McAllen, Hidalgo County, Tex., June 4, 1965. Lawyer; as trial attorney for San Francisco Office of Public Defender, was twice jailed for contempt of court; the contempt findings were overturned on appeal; candidate for mayor of San Francisco, Calif., 2003; Independent candidate for Vice President of the United States, 2008. Mexican ancestry. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Son of Mateo Gonzalez and Oralia Gonzalez.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile
  Jack Harvard (b. 1946) — of Plano, Collin County, Tex. Born October 23, 1946. Republican. Banker; mayor of Plano, Tex., 1982-90; candidate in primary for Texas state senate 2nd District, 1992. Indicted in August 1995, along with David B. McCall, Jr. and others, on federal bank fraud charges relating to $25 million in loans; pleaded guilty in September 1996 to one count of providing false information on one loan; sentenced to three years in prison. Still living as of 1996.
  Edward Brooke Lee, Jr. (1917-2004) — also known as E. Brooke Lee, Jr. — of Silver Spring, Montgomery County, Md.; Washington, D.C.; Chevy Chase, Montgomery County, Md. Born in Silver Spring, Montgomery County, Md., October 25, 1917. Real estate developer; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Maryland, 1944, 1952 (member, Credentials Committee); marketing and accounting executive with Scott Paper Company; candidate for mayor of Washington, D.C., 1982; pleaded guilty in July 1995 to misdemeanor child abuse after being charged with fondling a babysitter; reportedly fined and given a suspended sentence; later settled a civil suit against him by the babysitter's parents. Died, from congestive heart failure, in Chevy Chase, Montgomery County, Md., August 20, 2004 (age 86 years, 300 days). Interment at Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C.
  Relatives: Son of Elizabeth Somerville (Wilson) Lee and Edward Brooke Lee; brother of Blair Lee III (1916-1985); married to Brenda Joyce Baker; grandson of Francis Preston Blair Lee; great-grandnephew of Montgomery Blair and Francis Preston Blair, Jr.; second great-grandson of Francis Preston Blair, Augustus Rhodes Sollers and Daniel Robeadeau Clymer; second great-grandnephew of Hiester Clymer; third great-grandson of Richard Henry Lee and James Blair; third great-grandnephew of Francis Lightfoot Lee, Arthur Lee and William Hiester; fourth great-grandnephew of John Hiester and Daniel Hiester (1747-1804); first cousin twice removed of James Lawrence Blair and Gist Blair; first cousin four times removed of Isaac Ellmaker Hiester; first cousin five times removed of Daniel Hiester (1774-1834); first cousin six times removed of Joseph Hiester; second cousin four times removed of Thomas Sim Lee, Henry Lee, Charles Lee and Edmund Jennings Lee; second cousin five times removed of John Eager Howard; third cousin thrice removed of John Lee and William Julian Albert; fourth cousin once removed of Joseph Wingate Folk.
  Political families: Lee-Randolph family of Maryland and Virginia; Biddle-Randolph family of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Muhlenberg-Hiester family of Pennsylvania (subsets of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  Maurice Larry Lawrence (1926-1996) — also known as M. Larry Lawrence — of San Diego, San Diego County, Calif.; Coronado, San Diego County, Calif. Born in Chicago, Cook County, Ill., August 16, 1926. Democrat. Delegate to Democratic National Convention from California, 1964, 1972; candidate for Presidential Elector for California, 1972; U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland, 1994-96, died in office 1996. Jewish. Member, Zeta Beta Tau. Falsely claimed to have served and been injured in the Merchant Marine during World War II; this was discovered a year after his death. Died, of leukemia and blood dyscrasia, in Berne, Switzerland, January 9, 1996 (age 69 years, 146 days). Original interment at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.; reinterment in 1997 at El Camino Cemetery, San Diego, Calif.
  Relatives: Son of Sidney A. Lawrence and Tillie P. Astor Lawrence; married 1949 to Geraldine Polland.
  See also Wikipedia article — U.S. State Dept career summary
  James D. Brackenrich (b. 1936) — also known as J. D. Brackenrich — of Lewisburg, Greenbrier County, W.Va. Born in Greenbrier County, W.Va., January 23, 1936. Democrat. Engineer; surveyor; member of West Virginia state senate 11th District, 1987-93; resigned 1993. Baptist. Member, Freemasons; Elks; National Rifle Association. Pleaded guilty on May 1, 1996 to a misdemeanor charge of filling wetlands without a Clean Water Act permit. Still living as of 1996.
  Relatives: Son of James Brackenrich and Helen Brackenrich; married 1958 to Patricia Griffith.
  Scott Winfield Davis — also known as Scott W. Davis — of Palo Alto, Santa Clara County, Calif. Arrested in 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, and charged with killing David Coffin and setting fire to his home; the charges were later dropped for lack of evidence; Independent candidate for Governor of California, 2003. Still living as of 2003.
  Walter Rayford Tucker III (b. 1957) — also known as Walter R. Tucker III — of Compton, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Compton, Los Angeles County, Calif., May 28, 1957. Democrat. Lawyer; ordained minister; mayor of Compton, Calif., 1991-92; U.S. Representative from California 37th District, 1993-95; resigned 1995. Baptist. African ancestry. Sentenced in 1996 to 27 months in prison for extortion and tax evasion. Still living as of 2014.
  Relatives: Son of Walter R. Tucker, Jr. (1924-1990).
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  James Guy Tucker, Jr. (b. 1943) — also known as Jim Guy Tucker, Jr. — of Arkansas. Born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, Okla., June 13, 1943. Democrat. Arkansas state attorney general, 1973-77; U.S. Representative from Arkansas 2nd District, 1977-79; candidate for U.S. Senator from Arkansas, 1978; Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas, 1991-92; Governor of Arkansas, 1992-96. Presbyterian. Resigned in July 1996 after his conviction on federal charges brought by independent counsel Kenneth Starr. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — NNDB dossier
  Jay C. Kim (b. 1939) — also known as Chang-Jun Kim — of Diamond Bar, Los Angeles County, Calif. Born in Seoul, South Korea, March 27, 1939. Republican. U.S. Representative from California 41st District, 1993-99; defeated in primary, 1998 (41st District), 2000 (42nd District). Methodist. Korean ancestry. Pleaded guilty in 1997 to a misdemeanor charge of accepting more than $250,000 in illegal campaign contributions; sentenced to two months of home detention. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Newt Gingrich (b. 1943) — also known as Newton Leroy McPherson; "Nuclear Newt" — of Carrollton, Carroll County, Ga. Born in Harrisburg, Dauphin County, Pa., June 17, 1943. Republican. College professor; author; U.S. Representative from Georgia 6th District, 1979-99; defeated, 1974, 1976; Speaker of the U.S. House, 1995-99. Baptist; later Catholic. Reprimanded in 1997 by the House of Representatives, and fined $300,000, over false statements he had made during an investigation of his use of tax-exempt organizations for partisan advocacy. Still living as of 2020.
  Relatives: Son of Newton Searles McPherson and Kathleen (Daugherty) McPherson; married, June 19, 1962, to Jackie Battley (divorced 1981); married, August 8, 1981, to Marianne Ginther (divorced 2000); married, August 18, 2000, to Callista Louise Bisek; step-father of Robert Gingrich.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — OurCampaigns candidate detail — Encyclopedia of American Loons
  Books by Newt Gingrich: Winning The Future: A 21st Century Contract with America (2005) — Saving Lives & Saving Money : Transforming Health and Healthcare, with Dana Pavey & Anne Woodbury — To Renew America (1995) — Lessons Learned the Hard Way: A Personal Report (1998) — Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous with Destiny, with Callista Gingrich & David N. Bossie (2011) — A Nation Like No Other: Why American Exceptionalism Matters (2011)
  Fiction by Newt Gingrich: Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War, with William R. Forstchen — Grant Comes East, with William R. Forstchen — Never Call Retreat : Lee and Grant: The Final Victory, with William R. Forstchen — 1945, with William R. Forstchen
  Books about Newt Gingrich: Mel Steely, The Gentleman from Georgia : The Biography of Newt Gingrich — Richard B. Cheney & Lynne V. Cheney, Kings Of The Hill : How Nine Powerful Men Changed The Course of American History
  Critical books about Newt Gingrich: David Maraniss & Michael Weisskopf, Tell Newt to Shut Up : Prize-Winning Washington Post Journalists Reveal How Reality Gagged the Gingrich Revolution — John K. Wilson, Newt Gingrich: Capitol Crimes and Misdemeanors
  James C. Green (c.1922-2000) — also known as Jimmy Green — of Clarkton, Bladen County, N.C. Born about 1922. Democrat. Member of North Carolina state house of representatives, 1961-77; Speaker of the North Carolina State House of Representatives, 1975-77; Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina, 1977-85; candidate in primary for Governor of North Carolina, 1984. Presbyterian. Charged in 1983 with accepting a bribe from an undercover FBI agent, but acquitted; convicted of tax evasion in 1997, fined, and sentenced to home confinement. Died at Bladen County Hospital, Elizabethtown, Bladen County, N.C., February 4, 2000 (age about 78 years). Interment at Clarkton Cemetery, Clarkton, N.C.
  Charles Richard Imbrecht (1949-2000) — also known as Charles R. Imbrecht — of Ventura, Ventura County, Calif.; Sacramento, Sacramento County, Calif. Born in Ventura, Ventura County, Calif., February 4, 1949. Republican. Lawyer; member of California state assembly 36th District, 1976-82; candidate for California state senate 18th District, 1982. Lutheran. Pleaded guilty in 1997 to charges of drunk driving and marijuana possession and served one month in jail. Died, apparently from a heart attack, in Pasadena, Los Angeles County, Calif., January 18, 2000 (age 50 years, 348 days). Interment at Ivy Lawn Memorial Park, Ventura, Calif.
  Relatives: Son of Earl Richard Imbrecht and Hazel Victoria (Berg) Imbrecht; married, September 23, 1979, to Alida Margit Bergseid.
  Albert Michael Espy (b. 1953) — also known as Mike Espy — of Yazoo City, Yazoo County, Miss. Born in Yazoo City, Yazoo County, Miss., November 30, 1953. Democrat. U.S. Representative from Mississippi 2nd District, 1987-93; U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, 1993. African ancestry. Indicted August 27, 1997, on 30 criminal counts based on acceptance of gifts from organizations and individuals doing business with the Agriculture Department; acquitted December 2, 1998. Still living as of 2014.
  See also congressional biography — Govtrack.us page — votes in Congress from the Washington Post — NNDB dossier
  John Fife Symington III (b. 1945) — also known as Fife Symington III — of Arizona. Born in New York, New York County, N.Y., August 12, 1945. Republican. Served in the U.S. Air Force during the Vietnam War; Governor of Arizona, 1991-97; resigned 1997. Episcopalian. Convicted on seven counts of bank fraud in federal court, September 3, 1997; forced to resign as governor; sentenced to prison and fined in February 1998; his conviction was overturned on appeal in June 1999; pardoned by President Bill Clinton in 2001. Still living as of 2017.
  Relatives: Son of John Fife Symington, Jr. and Martha Howard (Frick) Symington; great-grandson of Henry Clay Frick (1849-1919; coal and steel magnate); first cousin once removed of William Stuart Symington; second cousin of James Wadsworth Symington (1927-).
  Political families: Kellogg-Seymour-Chapin-Adams family of Connecticut and New York; Wolcott-Wadsworth family of Connecticut and Maryland; Whitney-Nye family of Massachusetts and New York; Hay-Morton-Turner-Wadsworth family of Taunton, Massachusetts (subsets of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier
  Hollis Earl Roberts (1943-2011) — also known as Hollis E. Roberts — of Hugo, Choctaw County, Okla. Born in Hochatown, McCurtain County, Okla., May 9, 1943. Member of Oklahoma state house of representatives, 1970; chief of the Choctaw Nation, 1978-97. Choctaw Indian ancestry. Convicted in 1997 of aggravated sexual abuse and abusive sexual contact, involving two female employees. Died in Hugo, Choctaw County, Okla., October 19, 2011 (age 68 years, 163 days). Burial location unknown.
  Relatives: Son of Darrell E. Roberts and Laura (Beam) Roberts; married, May 17, 1963, to Helen R. Rodriguez.
  See also Wikipedia article
Drew Nixon Drew Nixon (b. 1959) — of Carthage, Panola County, Tex. Born November 21, 1959. Republican. Real estate sales; accountant; insurance business; member of Texas state senate 3rd District, 1995-2000; arrested in February 1997, after he offered money to a police officer posing as a prostitute; a loaded revolver was found under the seat of his car, though he had no concealed hangun permit; pleaded guilty and sentenced to six months in jail. Baptist. Still living as of 2000.
  See also OurCampaigns candidate detail — Texas Legislators Past & Present
  Image source: Texas Legislative Reference Library
  William Jefferson Clinton (b. 1946) — also known as Bill Clinton; William Jefferson Blythe IV; "Slick Willie"; "Bubba"; "Elvis"; "Eagle"; "The Big Dog" — of Arkansas; Chappaqua, Westchester County, N.Y. Born in Hope, Hempstead County, Ark., August 19, 1946. Democrat. Rhodes scholar; candidate for U.S. Representative from Arkansas 3rd District, 1974; Arkansas state attorney general, 1977-79; Governor of Arkansas, 1979-81, 1983-92; delegate to Democratic National Convention from Arkansas, 1996, 2000; speaker, 1984, 1988; President of the United States, 1993-2001; delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 2004, 2008. Baptist. Member, Trilateral Commission; Council on Foreign Relations; Phi Beta Kappa; Pi Sigma Alpha; Phi Alpha Delta; American Bar Association. On October 29, 1994, Francisco Duran fired 27 shots from the sidewalk at the White House in an apparent assassination attempt against President Clinton. Impeached by the House of Representatives in December 1998 over allegations of perjury and obstruction of justice in connection with his sexual contact with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, but acquitted by the Senate. Still living as of 2020.
  Relatives: Step-son of Roger Clinton; son of William Jefferson Blythe II and Virginia (Cassidy) Clinton (1923-1994); married, October 11, 1975, to Hillary Diane Rodham (sister of Hugh Edwin Rodham); father of Chelsea Clinton (daughter-in-law of Edward Maurice Mezvinsky and Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky); third cousin twice removed of James Alexander Lockhart (1850-1905).
  Political families: Clinton family of Wadesboro, North Carolina; Ashe-Polk family of North Carolina (subsets of the Three Thousand Related Politicians).
  Cross-reference: Abraham J. Hirschfeld — Kenneth W. Starr — Rahm Emanuel — Henry G. Cisneros — Maria Echaveste — Thurgood Marshall, Jr. — Walter S. Orlinsky — Charles F. C. Ruff — Sean Patrick Maloney — Lanny J. Davis
  The William Jefferson Clinton Federal Building (built 1934; renamed for Clinton 2012) in Washington, D.C., is named for him.
  See also Wikipedia article — NNDB dossier — Internet Movie Database profile — OurCampaigns candidate detail
  Books by Bill Clinton: Between Hope and History : Meeting America's Challenges for the 21st Century (1996) — My Life (2004)
  Books about Bill Clinton: David Maraniss, First in His Class : The Biography of Bill Clinton — Joe Conason, The Hunting of the President : The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton — Gene Lyons, Fools for Scandal : How the Media Invented Whitewater — Sidney Blumenthal, The Clinton Wars — Dewayne Wickham, Bill Clinton and Black America — Joe Klein, The Natural : The Misunderstood Presidency of Bill Clinton — Nigel Hamilton, Bill Clinton: An American Journey — Bob Woodward, The Agenda: Inside the Clinton White House — George Stephanopolous, All Too Human — John F. Harris, The Survivor : Bill Clinton in the White House — Mark Katz, Clinton & Me: A Real Life Political Comedy — Michael Takiff, A Complicated Man: The Life of Bill Clinton as Told by Those Who Know Him — Tim O'Shei, Bill Clinton (for young readers)
  Critical books about Bill Clinton: Barbara Olson, The Final Days : The Last, Desperate Abuses of Power by the Clinton White House — Meredith L. Oakley, On the Make : The Rise of Bill Clinton — Robert Patterson, Dereliction of Duty: The Eyewitness Account of How Bill Clinton Endangered America's Long-Term National Security — Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Secret Life of Bill Clinton: The Unreported Stories — Ann Coulter, High Crimes and Misdemeanors: The Case Against Bill Clinton — Dick Morris & Eileen McGann, Because He Could — Jack Cashill, Ron Brown's Body : How One Man's Death Saved the Clinton Presidency and Hillary's Future — Christopher Hitchens, No One Left To Lie To: The Values of the Worst Family — Rich Lowry, Legacy: Paying the Price for the Clinton Years — Richard Miniter, Losing Bin Laden : How Bill Clinton's Failures Unleashed Global Terror
  Richard Joyner Holland, Sr. (1925-2000) — also known as Richard J. Holland, Sr. — of Windsor, Isle of Wight County, Va. Born in Suffolk, Va., August 12, 1925. Democrat. Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II; banker; member of Virginia state senate 15th District, 1980-2000; died in office 2000. Congregationalist. Acquitted of drunk driving in 1986, but convicted of reckless driving and refusal to take a breath test; indicted in federal court for 31 felony counts of bank fraud; charges were dismissed in April 1998, and the prosecution ruled to be vexatious; he and his son received a $570,000 reimbursement for legal fees. Died in Windsor, Isle of Wight County, Va., April 16, 2000 (age 74 years, 248 days). Interment at Windsor Cemetery, Windsor, Va.
  Relatives: Son of Shirley T. Holland (1900?-?).
  Roy C. Lewellen — also known as Bill Lewellen — of Marianna, Lee County, Ark. Democrat. Lawyer; member of Arkansas state senate, 1990. Refused to take a blood-alcohol test following a November 1998 accident in which he struck a woman with his Cadillac, dragging her 55 feet; his driver's license was suspended for six months. A charge of driving while intoxicated was dismissed. Still living as of 2000.
  Byron Low Tax Looper (b. 1964) — also known as Byron Anthony Looper — of Cookeville, Putnam County, Tenn. Born in Putnam County, Tenn., September 15, 1964. Democratic candidate for Georgia state house of representatives, 1987; Republican candidate for Tennessee state house of representatives, 1992; Republican candidate for Tennessee state senate, 1998. Changed his middle name from Anthony to Low Tax. He was indicted in March, 1998, on 14 counts of official misconduct as Putnam County Tax Assessor. On October 19, 1998, he shot and killed Tommy Burks, his opponent for a state senate seat; he was arrested soon after and charged with murder. He lost the November 1998 senate election to Burks' widow, who ran as a write-in candidate with the support of both parties. In August, 2000, he was tried for murder, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison without parole. Still living as of 2008.
  Cross-reference: McCracken Poston
  Alberto Gutman (b. 1959) — also known as Al Gutman — of Florida. Born in Havana (La Habana), Cuba, January 4, 1959. Republican. Member of Florida state house of representatives, 1984-92; member of Florida state senate 34th District, 1992-99. Jewish. Cuban ancestry. Member, Phi Theta Kappa; Phi Kappa Phi; B'nai B'rith; Freemasons. In 1999, he was indicted, along with his wife and 23 others, on charges of Medicaid fraud and conspiracy; pleaded guilty to felony conspiracy charges that he helped set up home health care companies that never did any legitimate business, got names of purported patients from voter lists, and received over $800,000 in Medicare payments; resigned from the Florida Senate as part of the plea bargain; sentenced in 2000 to five years in prison, fined, and ordered to pay restitution. Still living as of 1999.
  Gerald Steven Ackerman (b. 1956) — also known as Gerald Ackerman; Ajax Ackerman — of Port Huron, St. Clair County, Mich. Born August 5, 1956. Mayor of Port Huron, Mich., 1997-99; resigned 1999. Arraigned in April 1999 on 14 counts of criminal sexual conduct involving children; tried in October 1999 and convicted only of the indecent exposure charges, with the jury unable to agree on the others; sentenced to one year imprisonment; retried in May 2000 and convicted on 10 felony counts of criminal sexual conduct; sentenced to 18 to 38 years imprisonment. Still living as of 2007.
  Paul J. Silvester (born c.1963) — of West Hartford, Hartford County, Conn. Born about 1963. Republican. Connecticut state treasurer, 1997-99; appointed 1997. In September 1999, pleaded guilty to federal charges of racketeering, money laundering and bribery. His bail was revoked in January 2002 for improper contacts with a defendant in another corruption trial. Still living as of 2002.
  Percy Z. Giles (born c.1952) — of Chicago, Cook County, Ill. Born about 1952. Democrat. Candidate in primary for U.S. Representative from Illinois 7th District, 1996. African ancestry. Convicted in 1999 on federal bribery and extortion charges. Still living as of 1999.
  Nick Wilson (born c.1943) — of Pocahontas, Randolph County, Ark. Born about 1943. Democrat. Lawyer; member of Arkansas state senate, 1971-98. Convicted in November, 1999, on federal tax evasion charges. Pleaded guilty in March, 2000 to fraud; 128 other charges were dropped in return for his agreement to testify against three others. Still living as of 2000.
  William Hackel (born c.1942) — Born about 1942. Macomb County Sheriff, 1977-2000; charged in November 1999 of raping a 26-year-old woman at a sheriffs' convention; tried and convicted in April 2000, and sentenced to three to fifteen years in prison. Still living as of 2000.
"Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
The Political Graveyard

The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 312,576 politicians, living and dead.
  The listings are incomplete; development of the database is a continually ongoing project.  
  Information on this page — and on all other pages of this site — is believed to be accurate, but is not guaranteed. Users are advised to check with other sources before relying on any information here.  
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Copyright notices: (1) Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist v. Rural Telephone. (2) Politician portraits displayed on this site are 70-pixel-wide monochrome thumbnail images, which I believe to constitute fair use under applicable copyright law. Where possible, each image is linked to its online source. However, requests from owners of copyrighted images to delete them from this site are honored. (3) Original material, programming, selection and arrangement are © 1996-2019 Lawrence Kestenbaum. (4) This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with attribution, under a Creative Commons License.
Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure and content. — The mailing address is The Political Graveyard, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — This site is hosted by HDL. — The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996; the last full revision was done on March 10, 2021.

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