The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History

U.S. diplomatic chiefs of mission to Japan

Townsend Harris (Minister 1859) Robert H. Pruyn (Minister 1861) Robert B. Van Valkenburgh (Minister 1866-69) Charles E. De Long (Minister 1869) John Armor Bingham (Minister 1873) Richard B. Hubbard, Jr. (Minister 1885) John F. Swift (Minister 1889-91) Frank L. Coombs (Minister 1892-93) Edwin Dun (Minister 1893-97) Alfred E. Buck (Minister 1897) Lloyd C. Griscom (Minister 1902-06) Luke E. Wright (Ambassador 1906-07) Thomas J. O'Brien (Ambassador 1907-11) Charles P. Bryan (Ambassador 1911-12) Larz Anderson (Ambassador 1912-13) George W. Guthrie (Ambassador 1913-17) Roland S. Morris (Ambassador 1917-20) Charles B. Warren (Ambassador 1921-22) Cyrus E. Woods (Ambassador 1923-24) Edgar A. Bancroft (Ambassador 1924-25) Charles MacVeagh (Ambassador 1925-29) William Richards Castle (Ambassador 1929-30) W. Cameron Forbes (Ambassador 1930-32) Joseph C. Grew (Ambassador 1932-38) Robert D. Murphy (Ambassador 1952) John M. Allison (Ambassador 1953-57) Douglas MacArthur II (Ambassador 1957-61) Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (Ambassador 1961-66) U. Alexis Johnson (Ambassador 1966-69) Armin H. Meyer (Ambassador 1969-72) Robert S. Ingersoll (Ambassador 1972-73) James D. Hodgson (Ambassador 1974-77) Mike Mansfield (Ambassador 1977-88) Michael Armacost (Ambassador 1989) Walter F. Mondale (Ambassador 1993) Thomas S. Foley (Ambassador 1997-2001) Howard H. Baker (Ambassador 2001-05)

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Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
The Political Graveyard

The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 320,919 politicians, living and dead.
  The coverage of this site includes (1) the President, Vice President, members of Congress, elected state and territorial officeholders in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories; and the chief elected official, typically the mayor, of qualifying municipalities; (2) candidates at election, including primaries, for any of the above; (3) all federal judges and all state appellate judges; (4) certain federal officials, including the federal cabinet, diplomatic chiefs of mission, consuls, U.S. district attorneys, collectors of customs and internal revenue, members of major federal commissions; and political appointee (pre-1969) postmasters of qualifying communities; (5) state and national political party officials, including delegates, alternate delegates, and other participants in national party nominating conventions; (6) Americans who served as "honorary" consuls for other nations before 1950. Note: municipalities or communities "qualify", for Political Graveyard purposes, if they have at least half a million person-years of history, inclusive of predecessor, successor, and merged entities.  
  The listings are incomplete; development of the database is a continually ongoing project.  
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Copyright notices: (1) Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist v. Rural Telephone. (2) Politician portraits displayed on this site are 70-pixel-wide monochrome thumbnail images, which I believe to constitute fair use under applicable copyright law. Where possible, each image is linked to its online source. However, requests from owners of copyrighted images to delete them from this site are honored. (3) Original material, programming, selection and arrangement are © 1996-2023 Lawrence Kestenbaum. (4) This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with attribution, under a Creative Commons License.
Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure and content. — The mailing address is The Political Graveyard, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — This site is hosted by HDL. — The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996; the last full revision was done on March 8, 2023.

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