The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History

U.S. diplomatic chiefs of mission to Italy

John Nelson (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1831-32) Enos T. Throop (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1838-41) William Boulware (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1841-45) William Hawkins Polk (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1845-47) John Rowan, Jr. (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1848-49) Edward Joy Morris (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1850-53) Robert D. Owen (Charge d'Affaires to the Two Sicilies 1853-54) Robert D. Owen (Minister to the Two Sicilies 1854-58) Joseph R. Chandler (Minister to the Two Sicilies 1858) George P. Marsh (Minister 1861-82) William Waldorf Astor (Minister 1882-85) John Stallo (Minister 1885-89) Albert G. Porter (Minister 1889-92) William Potter (Minister 1892-94) Wayne MacVeagh (Ambassador 1893-97) William F. Draper (Ambassador 1897-1900) George V. L. Meyer (Ambassador 1900-05) Henry White (Ambassador 1905-07) Lloyd C. Griscom (Ambassador 1907-09) John G. A. Leishman (Ambassador 1909-11) Thomas J. O'Brien (Ambassador 1911-13) Thomas N. Page (Ambassador 1913-19) Robert Underwood Johnson (Ambassador 1920-21) Richard Washburn Child (Ambassador 1921-24) Henry P. Fletcher (Ambassador 1924-29) John W. Garrett (Ambassador 1929-33) Breckinridge Long (Ambassador 1933-36) William Phillips (Ambassador 1936-41) Alexander C. Kirk (Ambassador 1944-46) James Clement Dunn (Ambassador 1946-52) Ellsworth Bunker (Ambassador 1952-53) Clare Boothe Luce (Ambassador 1953-56) J. D. Zellerbach (Ambassador 1956-60) G. Frederick Reinhardt (Ambassador 1961-68) H. Gardner Ackley (Ambassador 1968-69) Graham Anderson Martin (Ambassador 1969-73) John A. Volpe (Ambassador 1973-77) Richard N. Gardner (Ambassador 1977-81) Maxwell M. Rabb (Ambassador 1981-89) Peter F. Secchia (Ambassador 1989-93) Reginald Bartholomew (Ambassador 1993-97) Thomas M. Foglietta (Ambassador 1997-2001) Melvin F. Sembler (Ambassador 2001)

"Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
The Political Graveyard

The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 320,919 politicians, living and dead.
  The coverage of this site includes (1) the President, Vice President, members of Congress, elected state and territorial officeholders in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories; and the chief elected official, typically the mayor, of qualifying municipalities; (2) candidates at election, including primaries, for any of the above; (3) all federal judges and all state appellate judges; (4) certain federal officials, including the federal cabinet, diplomatic chiefs of mission, consuls, U.S. district attorneys, collectors of customs and internal revenue, members of major federal commissions; and political appointee (pre-1969) postmasters of qualifying communities; (5) state and national political party officials, including delegates, alternate delegates, and other participants in national party nominating conventions; (6) Americans who served as "honorary" consuls for other nations before 1950. Note: municipalities or communities "qualify", for Political Graveyard purposes, if they have at least half a million person-years of history, inclusive of predecessor, successor, and merged entities.  
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Copyright notices: (1) Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist v. Rural Telephone. (2) Politician portraits displayed on this site are 70-pixel-wide monochrome thumbnail images, which I believe to constitute fair use under applicable copyright law. Where possible, each image is linked to its online source. However, requests from owners of copyrighted images to delete them from this site are honored. (3) Original material, programming, selection and arrangement are © 1996-2023 Lawrence Kestenbaum. (4) This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with attribution, under a Creative Commons License.
Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure and content. — The mailing address is The Political Graveyard, P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — This site is hosted by HDL. — The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996; the last full revision was done on March 8, 2023.

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