The Political Graveyard: A Database of American History
Iowa: Secretaries of State

Iowa Secretaries of State, 1846-2006 (May be incomplete!)
Elisa Cutler, Jr. 1846-48 Josiah H. Bonney 1848-50 George W. McCleary 1850-56 Elijah Sells 1856-63 James Wright 1863-67 Ed Wright 1867-73 Josiah T. Young 1873-79 John A. T. Hull 1879-85 Frank D. Jackson 1885-91 William M. McFarland 1891-97 George L. Dobson 1897-1901 William B. Martin 1901-07 William C. Hayward 1907-13 William S. Allen 1913-19 W. C. Ramsey 1919-28 Ed M. Smith 1928-31 Gilbert C. Greenwalt 1931-33 Mrs. Alex Miller 1933-37 Robert E. O'Brian 1937-39 Earl G. Miller 1939-43 Wayne N. Ropes 1943-47 Rollo H. Bergeson 1947-49 Melvin D. Synhorst 1949-65 Gary L. Cameron 1965-66 Melvin D. Synhorst 1967-80 Mary Jane Odell 1980-83 Elaine Baxter 1987-92 Paul Pate 1995-98 Chet Culver 1999-2006

Events and Candidates (may be incomplete!)

  • 1880: Timothy O. Walker (Dem), defeated.
  • 1898 Nov 8: George L. Dobson (Rep), elected; Claude R. Porter (Dem), defeated; Malcolm Smith (Prohibition), defeated; R. M. Daniels (People's), defeated; A. C. Swanholm (Socialist Labor), defeated.
  • 1900 Nov 6: William B. Martin (Rep), elected; S. B. Crane (Dem), defeated; S. O. Pillsbury (Prohibition), defeated; C. Wirth (Social Democratic), defeated; T. G. Wheeler (People's), defeated; J. M. Kremer (Socialist Labor), defeated; E. W. Sage (United Christian), defeated.
  • 1902 Nov 4: William B. Martin (Rep), elected; Richard Burke (Dem), defeated; W. Howard (Prohibition), defeated; W. A. Jacobs (Socialist), defeated.
  • 1904 Nov 8: William B. Martin (Rep), elected; Charles A. Dickson (Dem), defeated; John E. Shank (Socialist), defeated; Albert J. Bolster (Prohibition), defeated; John C. Ferris (People's), defeated.
  • 1906 Nov 6: William C. Hayward (Rep), elected; J. S. McLuen (Dem), defeated; Charles R. Oyler (Socialist), defeated; D. R. Dungan (Prohibition), defeated; W. E. Macomber (People's), defeated.
  • 1908 Nov 3: William C. Hayward (Rep), elected; Julius Ruge (Dem), defeated; H. M. Humphrey (Prohibition), defeated; William Strauss (Socialist), defeated; Harry H. Mix (Independence), defeated; J. N. Martin (People's), defeated.
  • 1910 Nov 8: William C. Hayward (Rep), elected; A. J. Anders (Dem), defeated; Lee W. Lang (Socialist), defeated; Byron E. Youtz (Prohibition), defeated.
  • 1912 Nov 5: William S. Allen (Rep), elected; Charles B. Murtagh (Dem), defeated; Harry A. Morey (Progressive), defeated; E. G. Popejoy (Socialist), defeated; P. G. Watson (Prohibition), defeated.
  • 1914 Nov 3: William S. Allen (Rep), elected; John D. Denison (Dem), defeated; W. J. Sinyard (Progressive), defeated; J. J. Jacobson (Socialist), defeated; R. H. Williams (Prohibition), defeated.
  • 1916 Nov 7: William S. Allen (Rep), elected; William G. Noth (Dem), defeated; Herman G. Altenberger (Socialist), defeated; Carl S. Lewis (Prohibition), defeated; D. W. Patterson (Progressive), defeated.
  • 1930: Flora Cotton Etter (Dem), defeated.
  • 1937 Jan 26: Robert E. O'Brian, appointed.
  • 1938: Robert E. O'Brian (Dem), defeated.
  • 1948: Melvin D. Synhorst (Rep), elected.
  • 1950: Melvin D. Synhorst (Rep), elected.
  • 1970 Nov 3: Melvin D. Synhorst (Rep), elected; Robinson (Dem), defeated.
  • 1980: Melvin D. Synhorst, resigned.
  • 1994 Jun 7: Paul Pate (Rep), nominated.
  • 1994 Nov 8: Paul Pate (Rep), elected.
  • 1998 Nov 3: Chet Culver (Dem), elected.
  • "Enjoy the hospitable entertainment of a political graveyard."
    Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872
    The Political Graveyard

    The Political Graveyard is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries. Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source for American political biography, listing 320,919 politicians, living and dead.
      The coverage of this site includes (1) the President, Vice President, members of Congress, elected state and territorial officeholders in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories; and the chief elected official, typically the mayor, of qualifying municipalities; (2) candidates at election, including primaries, for any of the above; (3) all federal judges and all state appellate judges; (4) certain federal officials, including the federal cabinet, diplomatic chiefs of mission, consuls, U.S. district attorneys, collectors of customs and internal revenue, members of major federal commissions; and political appointee (pre-1969) postmasters of qualifying communities; (5) state and national political party officials, including delegates, alternate delegates, and other participants in national party nominating conventions; (6) Americans who served as "honorary" consuls for other nations before 1950. Note: municipalities or communities "qualify", for Political Graveyard purposes, if they have at least half a million person-years of history, inclusive of predecessor, successor, and merged entities.  
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