The Political Graveyard
is a web site about U.S. political history and cemeteries.
Founded in 1996, it is the Internet's most comprehensive free source
for American political biography, listing 315,917
politicians, living and dead.|
The coverage of this site includes (1) the President, Vice President,
members of Congress, elected state and territorial officeholders in
all fifty states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories; and
the chief elected official, typically the mayor, of qualifying
municipalities; (2) candidates at election, including primaries, for
any of the above; (3) all federal judges and all state appellate
judges; (4) certain federal officials, including the federal cabinet,
diplomatic chiefs of mission, consuls, U.S. district attorneys,
collectors of customs and internal revenue, members of major
federal commissions; and political appointee (pre-1971) postmasters
of qualifying communities; (5) state and national political party
officials, including delegates, alternate delegates, and other
participants in national party nominating conventions. Note:
municipalities or communities "qualify", for TPG purposes, if they
have at least half a million person-years of history, inclusive of
predecessor, successor, and merged entities.
The listings are incomplete; development of the database
is a continually ongoing project.
Information on this page — and on all other pages of this
site — is believed to be accurate, but is not
guaranteed. Users are advised to check with other sources
before relying on any information here.
The official URL for this page is: https://politicalgraveyard.com/chrono/2019/10-31.html.
Links to this or any other Political Graveyard page
are welcome, but specific page addresses may sometimes
change as the site develops.
If you are searching for a specific named individual, try the
alphabetical index of
More information: FAQ;
If you find any error or omission in The Political Graveyard,
or if you have information to share, please see the
biographical checklist and
Copyright notices: (1) Facts are not subject to copyright; see Feist
v. Rural Telephone. (2) Politician portraits displayed on this site
are 70-pixel-wide monochrome thumbnail images, which I believe to
constitute fair use under applicable copyright law. Where
possible, each image is linked to its online source. However,
requests from owners of copyrighted images to delete them from this
site are honored. (3) Original material, programming, selection and
arrangement are © 1996-2019 Lawrence Kestenbaum.
(4) This work is also licensed for free non-commercial re-use, with
attribution, under a Creative Commons
Site information: The Political Graveyard is created and maintained
by Lawrence Kestenbaum, who is solely responsible for its structure
and content. — The mailing address is The Political Graveyard,
P.O. Box 2563, Ann Arbor MI 48106. — This site is hosted by
The Political Graveyard opened on July 1, 1996;
the last full revision was done on
May 10, 2022.